Blerina Resulaj, Rigerta Veseli , Ariol Rama

SHLP "Logos" , Tirana, Albania

Section: Biochemistry

Background:  Outside laboratory tests enable testing and monitoring of certain diseases 
or health conditions beyond the laboratory. The accuracy of these tests is different but 
still regulated by the FDA, using guidelines issued by the International Organization for 
Standardization (ISO) 15197: 2003. ISO standard requires 95% of results within range 
or slightly higher, be within / - 20% of true value.
Aim of the study: Measurement of glucose by two methods: spectrophotometers and 
glucometer, to see if there are differences between these methods, so if the results 
obtained from glucometer  fall within +/- 20% of  the true value.
Method : Measurements of the glycemic values were conducted using two methods: 
spectrophotometer Humalyzer Primus and the glucometer One Touch, using 
respectively samples as venous and capillary blood. Blood samples and all tests were 
conducted at the premises of HPS Logos.
Result : In our study, we have found a difference in the measured results with 
spectrophotometer and glucometer. However, the resulting p values <0.05, it means the 
difference found between the two methods is not statistically significant.
Conclusions : Extra laboratory tests are cost-effective, fast and confidential. It is 
important that the persons concerned (eg. Diabetic patients) know to perform well the 
procedure to avoid as much as possible errors. According to our study, no statistically 
significant differences between the value of glycemia measured with glucometer or 
spectrophotometer (in the laboratory). There are cases in which as a result of not 
respecting sanitary conditions and storage of the device,  may result in wrong values 
which can be avoided increasingly  if work protocol is respected step by step.



Vesna Zupunski1, Vesna Spasic Jokic2, Mirjana Vasic1, Aleksandra Savic1, Zoran Mitrovic2, Ivan Zupunski2

1Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia
2Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia

Section: Biochemistry

Irradiation of food and feed has emerged as attractive alternative compared to chemical conventional treatments used to minimize losses occurred during storage and seed production.  According to Serbian national legislation and Directive 1999/2/EC of the European Parliament concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation, legume crops may be treated with ionising radiation with doses less than 1 kGy. Legume crops are considered to be an important source of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, fibers, essential vitamins, minerals, as well as anti-nutritional factors such as protease inhibitors. Protease inhibitors have anti-nutritional but also anti-carcinogenic properties. As a result, their exploration is of great interest, and in some countries the allowed trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) of new legume cultivars is statutorily prescribed. The effects of irradiation on nutritive and anti-nutritive components of legumes are reported in many studies, and these are usually accompanied with measurements obtained by using the quantitative analytical methods.

Methods for TIA measurement are based on the hydrolysis of Nα-Benzoyl-,L-arginine 4-nitroanilide hydrochloride (L-BAPNA) by trypsin and includes spectrophotometric measurement of the reaction products. Measurement results of TIA are usually accompanied with standard deviation, however uncertainty of TIA measurement along with analysis of sources of measurement uncertainty were not previously analyzed. In order to demonstrate quality of results of measurement it is important to estimate measurement uncertainty. Results accompanied with statement of measurement uncertainty increase confidence in the validity of a measurement result and enable comparisons between results obtained using different techniques or compliance with regulatory levels. The aim of this study was to estimate and to analyze uncertainty of TIA measurements using the microtiter plate method, according to the concept of measurement uncertainty described in the current Guide to the Expression of uncertainty in measurement.

Assaying procedure for TIA measuement was conducted using seed of Phaseolus vulgars (common bean), variety Oplenac as starting material. Sample, positive and negative control reaction mixtures were set in each microtiter plate row. The trypsin inhibitor activity was expresed in number of trypsin units inhibited (TUI) per miligram of seed sample, taking into account the fact that one trypsin unit is defined as an increase of 0.01 absorbance units at 405 nm. Large number of experiments was conducted and uncertainty analysis was obtained using uncertainty budget. Measured TIA of common bean variety Oplenac was 56.2 TUI/mg and estimated expanded measurement uncertainty (with coverage factor k=2) was aproxitemately 5.2 TUI/mg (9 %). Absorbance measurement and preparation of sample reaction mixtures took the largest percent (44 %) of overall uncertainty of TIA value. 



Yordanka Gluhcheva1, Juliana Ivanova2, Ivelin Vladov1, Kalina Kamenova2

1IEMPAM-BAS, Sofia, Bulgaria
2Sofia University , Soia, Bulgaria

Section: Biochemistry

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic environmental and industrial pollutants. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the chelating agents monensin and salinomycin on the hematological parameters of Cd-treated mice. The experimental animals were divided into four groups (n = 9 mice) as follow: group 1- mice were treated with an average daily dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. Cd(II) acetate for 2 weeks followed by 2 weeks on distilled water; group 2 consisted of mice exposed to Cd(II) acetate treatment for 2 weeks, as described for group 1 and subsequently treated with an average daily dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. monensin for 2 weeks; group 3 included mice exposed to Cd(II) acetate treatment for 2 weeks, as described above and subsequently treated with an average daily dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. salinomycin for 2 weeks; group 4 (untreated control animals) consisted of mice obtaining distilled water. All compounds were dissolved in distilled water and obtained orally. The chelating agents were administered as tetraethylammonium salts of monensic and salinomycinic acids respectively.

Experimental results showed reduced red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin content (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT) in blood samples of mice treated with Cd compared to the untreated controls. Addition of monensin or salinomycin improved the erythrocytic parameters. The results presented herein demonstrated the potential application of monensin and salinomycin as antidotes for Cd-poisoning.

Acknowledgments: The work was supported by Grant No 64/2015, financed by the Sofia University “St. Kl. Ohridski” Science Fund.



Yordanka Gluhcheva, Ekaterina Pavlova, Ivelin Vladov

IEMPAM-BAS, Sofia, Bulgaria

Section: Biochemistry

The wide use of cobalt (Co) in medical implants requires full elucidation of its biological effects on cells, tissues and organs. Elevated concentrations of Co are measured in blood and urine following hip and knee arthroplasty which requires full elucidation of its biological effects. Pregnant ICR mice were subjected to daily dose of 125 mg/kg body weight cobalt chloride (CoCl2x6H2O) before they gave birth to their mice. The compound was dissolved and obtained from drinking tap water. After birth, the mothers continued to be treated with the same dose because cobalt is transferred into the milk and thus the newborn mice were exposed to the metal ions. When the newborn mice were 25 days old they were separated into individual cages to ensure that all experimental animals obtained the required daily dose and treatment continued until they were 90 days old. The mice were weighed weekly and Co concentration in the water was adjusted accordingly. The animals were sacrificed by decapitation after etherization on days 18, 30, and 90. Erythrocyte count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (MCHC) and cobalt accumulation in blood plasma and RBC were studied. The control group consisted of age-matched mice obtaining regular tap water. Results showed adverse effects of cobalt on immature and mature mice. Chronic exposure to CoCl2 induced anemia in immature mice showing reduced RBC, Hgb and Hct values, compared to the untreated controls while in mature (day 90) animals these indices were elevated. The altered erythrocyte count affected MCV which was elevated in day 18 and day 90 mice. The low Hgb content lead to a significant increase in MCH and MCHC in immature (day 18 and day 30) mice. Analysis of blood plasma and RBC samples showed significant accumulation of Co(II) ions in the treated groups compared to untreated controls. Plasma accumulated ~ 4-fold more metal ions compared to the RBC fractions.

The altered RBC and Hgb content after cobalt treatment explains the ability of the metal ions to induce hypoxia. Chronic exposure to cobalt exhibited adverse effects on immature and mature mice. Immature mice were more sensitive to treatment.




Luisa Torsi

Università Degli Studi di Bari, Bari, Italy

Section: Biochemistry

Point-of-care (POC) biosensors are integrated diagnostic systems employed for the detection of clinically relevant analytes in biological fluids such as blood, urine and saliva. These devices offer the advantage to provide rapid results directly where the information is needed (e.g. patient’s home, doctor’s office or emergency room), thus facilitating an earlier diagnosis and a prompt patient’s treatment. Various technologies have been proposed for the realization of POC biosensors including label-free techniques based on optical, mechanical and electrochemical transducers. However, reliable, quantitative and ultrasensitive devices have been not yet commercialized. Electronic biosensors based on organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are a promising choice for the development of the next generation of POC devices. These biosensors can be combined with integrated electrical circuits, microfluidic systems and wireless technologies. Furthermore, they offer high sensitivity, biocompatibility and possibility to produce all-printed low-cost biosensors in flexible and disposable formats. Among them, electrolyte-gated (EG)-OTFTs have been identified as ideal candidates for biosensors development as they operate at low voltages directly in aqueous buffer solutions. Using these configurations ultrasensitive label-free immunosensors for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP), a specific biomarker of inflammatory and infection diseases, at the femtomolar concentration level have been developed. The devices are also able to perform chiral differential detection of odorant molecules. The specific features of the proposed EGOTFT biosensors as well as their analytical performances will be discussed.
- L. Torsi, M. Magliulo, K. Manoli, G. Palazzo, Chemical Society Review 42 (2013) 8612-8628.
-  M.Y. Mulla, E. Tuccori, M. Magliulo, G. Lattanzi, G. Palazzo, K. Persaud and L. Torsi. Nature Communications 6 (2015) 6010.
- K. Manoli et al.  Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2015, 54, 12562–12576. 



Anna A. Oleshkevich

State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology by K.I. Scriabin, Moscow, Russia, Moscow, Russia

Section: Biochemistry

Over the past several years, we investigated the cellular effects of therapeutic levels of continuous-wave and amplitude-modulated ultrasound (US). A number of examples in which US exposure of cells under non-thermal conditions modified cellular functions and structure were obtained. Ultrasonic irradiation modulated membrane properties of red and white blood cells (RBC & WBC), altered the MDBK cellular proliferation, and produced increases in proteins — α- and γ-interferon.

We tested the horse (n=40 animals), cat (n=46) and dog (n=50) blood samples from sick and healthy animals of different sex and age. In our study, none of laboratory animals were harmed. Blood samples of 1.5 ml were sonicated under absolutely identical conditions. The data obtained showed that the result of US action depended upon the kind, health and age of the animal as well as the cell size & type. These findings encompass both continuous and pulsed US at therapeutic levels ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 W/cm2 either 1-MHz or 3-MHz ultrasound. Pulse amplitude modulation allowed to perform equal–energy exposure on cells and to determine the biologically active frequencies. Active frequencies’ spectra were selected experimentally.

Biochemical studies were performed with serum and blood plasma enzymes: aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinaze. We deliberately chose those enzymes which may be present both in serum and plasma/blood cells. The absorption of ultrasonic energy by enzymatic proteins led to changes in the enzyme activity that may result in modifications to cellular function. Analysis of blood plasma and serum as well as RBC/WBC samples showed significant change of the cytoplasmic membrane structure, cell aggregation and modifications, a significant change in enzyme activity compared to untreated controls. Moreover, after the blood samples active frequencies’ US irradiation in vitro enzymatic activity could be varied while remaining unchanged in the serum samples.

The accumulated data could lead to a better understanding of how and when ultrasound should be employed as a therapeutic modality.

Acknowledgments. My sincere thanks to veterinarians Ella M. Komarova and Maria M. Gordiyenko for the blood samples provision during the experiments.



Eugeniya Kuzmina, Svetlana Zatsarenko, Tatiana Mushkarina

A.Tsyb MRRC, branch of NMRRC, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Obninsk, Russia

Section: Bioinformatics

The aim of the work is  to evaluate the possibility to use  combined  immunity  indicators for  differential diagnosis of Hodgkin’s lymphoma remission and recurrence  in late periods following the treatment .

As materials  of the study  278 records of immunological   tests  of peripheral blood of patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma in remission (196) and relapse (82) of the disease were used. Similar information on 100 blood donors was used as control.  For adequate  interpretation of  immune status, tested by 23 indicators the principal components (PC), analysis was performed.  On the basis of the correlation matrix construction and analysis of weight loads the most informative parameters, such as absolute number (*109 cells/l) leukocytes, CD4+T-helpers/inducers, CD8+cytotoxic T lymphocytes, CD19+B-cells, CD16+natural killer cells, CD3+HLADR+ activated T-cells,  the levels of IgM, G, A clasess of serum, the function of phagocytes , were selected. Immunological parameters of matched groups of patients, included in the first four PC described 70% of information about the immune status. For patients with  of remission and relapse mean values and standard deviation for each of the four main components were obtained.  As the next step combined immunity indicators,CII, were built with the use of regression analysis,  principal components (PC) calculated personally for each patient   were used as  independent variables. Calculations were made with the use of  the soft  «STATISTICA 8».

 Comparison of   four PCs of Student t-test showed statistically significant differences  of the groups "remission-relapse", "remission-donors", "relapse-donors". Remission and relapse of the disease  significantly differed when compared the averages of combined immunity indicators (t = 5,57, p <0.001). These results demonstrated  that relapse and remission of Hodgkin’s lymphoma could  be distinguished by the  value of combined immunity indicators. Histograms of distribution  of the indicators individual values  with the chosen interval were constructed  for remission and relapse. 40% of cases with remission only were within the range of individual indicators varied  from -2 to 0.   38% of cases with recurrent disease were within the the range of  combined immunity indicators  varied from 0.5 to 1.5. The central zone (combined immunity indicators  from 0 to 0.5) consisted  60% of patients with remission and 62% with  recurrent disease. Thus differential diagnosis of remission and relapse of Hodgkin’s lymphoma can be made for 40% of patients with remission and 38% with  relapse of the disease. Such parameters  as the stage of the disease, the volume of exposure to radiation, total radiation dose,  specific chemotherapeutics    and chemotherapy scheme, the time passed after the treatment can influence significantly the immune status, and determine the duration and stability of remission or relapse. We suggest that the increase in the volume of research with account of  the  mentioned parameters will improve  differentiation  of remission and relapse and lead to  narrowing of the boundaries of the «gray zone».




Monika Simjanoska, Ana Madevska Bogdanova

Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering, Skopje, Macedonia

Section: Bioinformatics

Gene expression analysis of colorectal cancer presents a clear picture of difference between the biomarkers expression at colorectal cancer samples in comparison to the healthy samples. We successfully applied Bayesian approach for modeling the probability distributions of the biomarkers, and later used the model for classifying new tissue samples obtaining 0.98 sensitivity and 0.91 specificity. However, there is a problem arising when we intend to make a model of the different colorectal cancer stages. The best classification results obtained were 0.73 for stage 1, 0.53 for stage 2, 0.72 for stage 3 and 0.64 for stage 4. The reason for the inaccurate modeling is the high level of similarity, especially between stage 1 and stage 4; and stage 2 and stage 3. Even though the problem between stage 1 and stage 4 seems to be unexpected, it is confirmed to be critical in the literature. Having exhausted the standard techniques for normalization, smoothing and biomarkers reduction, we took a glance into another intriguing topic - What if we observe the colorectal cancer in terms of signals? Assuming the cancer stages to represent different times, we can consider time expression profiles. Applying Fourier transformation, we can decompose gene expression profiles and obtain the frequency components. Those components we can use to capture biologically relevant information (low-frequency components) and filter the noise (high-frequency components). Having applied the method to filter out the biomarkers that carry the important information during the colorectal cancer progress, we can return into the gene expression domain and model the probability distribution of the biomarkers in each stage. Once again, we can apply the Bayesian approach to distinguish between the critical colorectal cancer stages.



Polina Kachesova1, Irina Goroshinskaya1, Oleg Polozhentsev2, Vladimir Borodulin3, Oleg Losev3

1Rostov Research Institute of Oncology, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
2Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
3Saratov State Medical University, Saratov, Russia

Section: Biomaterials

Recent studies demonstrated that zinc oxide nanomaterials (ZnO NPs) had an anti-cancer activity in vitro. However, in order to develop new classes of anticancer nanoparticle-based agents there is a need to estimate the influence of nanoparticles on the tumor-bearing organism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ZnO NPs on the growth of transplantable lymphosarcoma rats.

In this study we used ZnO (II) NPs, spherical in shape, with the particle size about of 20 nm. We investigated the antitumor activity of ZnO NPs in the experimental rat lymphosarcoma (Pliss’s lymphosarcoma). The tumor was transplanted subcutaneously in dorsal region of outbreed white male rats weighing 220-250 g. ZnO NPs was administered on the 6th day after tumors transplantation, when mean tumor volume (MTV) was about 0.50 cm3. The injections were given for 2 weeks with 4 injections a week (8-fold administration). The animals of experimental group (10 animals) received saline with NPs intraperitonially (single dose 1.25 mg/kg). The rats in control group (10 animals) were intraperitonially injected with saline (0.3 ml). The effect of ZnO NPs on tumor growth was determined by the change in tumors volume and number of regression cases.

After 2 injections MTV in the experimental group (4.2±0.98 cm3) did not differ from the control (5.3±0.73 cm3). However, after 3 injections two of the ten rats in the test group showed tumor regression. By the beginning of the 2nd week of therapy the MTV for test group as a whole was 19.1±5.68 cm3, control group – 37.5±2.4 cm3. After 6 injections 5 animals showed tumor regression (5.82±2.07 cm3). In other 5 rats tumor growth was observed (42.6±4.22 cm3) which was similar to the control (45.2±3.1 cm3). On day 2 after the 8th injection one rat demonstrated a fast tumor regression from 49.0 cm3 to 19.0 cm3, yet 3 days later the rat died, probably due to intoxication as a result of a rapid tumor lysis. In other 4 rats with growing tumor MTV reached 61.34±2.7 cm3 which do not differ from the control values. On day 14 after treatment the volume of tumor in rats with tumor regression was equal to zero. So tumor regression was observed in 6 of 10 rats, with the introduction of nanoparticles of zinc oxide to Pliss animals. Lymphosarcoma complete regression occurred in 50% of cases.

In previous studies we showed that the ZnO NPs enhanced the growth of experimental fibrosarcoma (C-45) in the 60.0% of experimental rats regardless of injection method (intratumorally or intraperitonially). This data have shown that the introduction of ZnO NPs can induce the inhibition of tumor growth, which leads to increased survival of the tumor-bearing animals. Thus, antiblastomic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles depends on histological type of the tumor.

“The reported study was supported by RFBR, research project No. 14-04-32046 мол_a”.





Gabriela Ciobanu1, Octavian Ciobanu2

1”Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, Iasi, Romania
2“Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Bioengineering, Iasi, Romania

Section: Biomaterials

In dental and orthopedic applications, radio-opaque materials may be used as filler in the composition of the biocement paste in order to enhance absorption of X-rays, and therefore for improving the visibility of the cement under X-ray examination. Radio-opacity is important for uses of cements in dental filling and dental sealing. Bismuth compounds, due to their radio-opacity, are added to various bone and dental implants, catheters and surgical instruments in order to make them detectable by X-rays and computed tomography. This study relates to a new apatite - bismuth material which is biocompatible and exhibits radio-opacity enhancing its utility in the dental and medical fields.



Vera Alexandra Spirescu1, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu2, Ecaterina Andronescu1

1University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
2Unoversity Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania

Section: Biomaterials

The aim of this work was to prepare novel sunscreens based on natural organic susbtances (beeswax, shea butter, coconut oil and simple and limonene) and zinc oxide nanoparticles. The nanostructures were prepared by a sol-gel process without further calcination. The sunscreens were prepared by homogenization of all ingredients. The sunscreens were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDAX, IR, TGA, ZETA potential, UV-Vis, the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of distribution. The results recommend these novel biocompatible sunscreens for protection against UV rays, being able to block UVA and UVB rays.
Key words:SPF, sunscreen, UV filter, zinc oxide, nanoparticles.


Roxana Cristina Popescu1, Ecaterina Andronescu2, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu2, Ileana Petcu1, Diana Savu1

1"Horia Hulubei" National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Magurele, Romania
2Politehnica University, Bucharest, Romania

Section: Biomaterials

Radiotherapy has been intensively used in the treatment of various types of cancer by using directed ionizing radiation, however, the potential benefits of low dose irradiation have not been clearly elucidated. One potential approach of cancer treatment refers to the use of nanotechnology in the fabrication of targeted carriers for anti-tumor substances. Even if there are several FDA- approved nanosystems, there is still a continuous urge to find more effective treatment options, which are supposed to overcome the shortcomings of the existing ones. Tumor resistance to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy was attempted to be exceeded by combining these techniques, but the results were far from expectations, nanoparticle-mediated radiotherapy being an approach for better responses. We propose the use of magnetite nanoparticles functionalized with different types of anti-tumor substances to be used in combination with low dose ionizing radiation in order to obtain higher nanoparticles penetration of the cells and to reduce the quantity of the toxic drug used in therapy, resulting in improved toxic effects against cancer cells.



H. Saito

Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Japan

Section: Biomaterials

Nowadays, the abuse of synthetic chemicals, especially are mutagens and carcinogens, such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), acridine orange and other aromatic coumpounds, has been severely contaminated to environment and caused many risks to human health. In the cell, these substances can intercalate into the major grooves and interstices between base pair of DNA double helix, resulting in mutations and cancers. In other words, DNA can be utilized as the most efficient bio-adsorbents of such toxic agents. For this purpose, DNA must be in water-insoluble state. Recently, radiation is proved as one of the effective method in order to introduce the crosslinking network in the polymer matrix and form the insoluble gels. However, DNA has been known as the radiation degradation polymer, which was easily to be broken by gamma irradiation in solution state. In this study, we have successfully prepared DNA-bovine serum albumin (DNA-BSA) crosslinked gels from aqueous mixtures of DNA with BSA by gamma irradiation. The gelation behaviors were characterized and their adsorption property was investigated with acridine orange. The results suggest that the radiation crosslinked DNA-BSA gels can be utilized as bio-adsorbents for aromatic toxic agents. 












Mioljub Nesic1, Marica Popovic1, Mihailo Rabasovic2, Dejan Milicevic1, Edin Suljovrujic1, Dragan Markushev2, Slobodanka Galovic1

1Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia
2Institute of Physics, Belgrade, Zemun, Serbia

Section: Biomaterials

In this work, frequency photoacoustic (PA) measurements were performed on polylactide samples at 200 μm thickness level. Thin samples were obtained by 20 min compression moulding in a Carver laboratory press at 160 °C and gradual pressure increment, up to 3.28 MPa. One set of the moulded sheets was quenched in the mixture of ice and water, while the other was prepared by slow cooling from the melt to room temperature, thus obtaining two sets of samples with different levels of crystallinity.  Photoacoustic frequency measurements were performed by indirect transmission set-up. Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were evaluated using simultaneous analysis of amplitude and phase characteristics of the frequency PA response. Standard composite piston model was used for the direct PA problem, and a novel fitting procedure was developed in order to enable a non-destructive PA evaluation of the crystallinity level in biomaterials and, consequently, the engineering of their properties.

Keywords: crystallinity, multi-parameter fitting, photoacoustics, photothermal, thermodynamics




Jovanka Gasic1, Radomir Barac2, Jelena Popovic3, Aleksandar Smiljkovic2, Aleksandar Mitic2, Marija Nikolic2

1University of Nis, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Clinic of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, Nis, Serbia
2University of Nis, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Clinic of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine,, Nis, Serbia
3University of Nis, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Clinic of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, , Nis, Serbia

Section: Biomaterials

Composite resins are the most prevalent materials used for aesthetic restorations. High temperatures induced alterations to composites and can be of great interest to forensic dentistry.

The objective was to investigate color change, surface damage, as well as the composition of two resin composites (micro and nano hybrid) exposed to extreme temperatures for forensic reference purposes.

Te-Econom and Tetric Evo-ceram samples were prepared using a metallic split ring. Heating was performed in a furnace at the following temperatures: 400°C, 650°C and 900°C for 30 min. Color changes were analyzed by visual assessment in comparison to controls. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) was used to characterize the structure and composition of samples.

After exposure to high temperatures, composites are changing color: initially becoming dark brown, then white and, finally, light yellow. Between the composites were no differences in the color. Samples of micro-hybrid-composite Te-Econom showed grainy and rough uneven surface on SEM and significantly more pronounced changes at lower temperatures, while nano hybrid composite Tetric EvoCeram undergone major changes at a temperature of 900 ° C, thereby reaching the melting point. EDS analysis showed that the elemental composition of resin composites after exposing to high temperatures remained almost unchanged.

These results indicate that the parameters observed in both resins are useful as a guide in forensic investigations.

In addition, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy can be a useful tools for the characterization of severely burnt teeth with composite fillings for victim identification.



Key words: Forensic odontology, dental composites, extreme temperatures, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy




Kaltrina Jusufi, Avni Berisha, Jeton Halili, Vjollca Palloshi, Valbonë Mehmeti, Lauresha Këpuska, Adelina Halili, Bardha Korça

University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo

Section: Biomaterials

Activated carbon is an excellent material for the adsorption of color and heavy metal materials from waste water. But given the water quantity and its waste, the cost of using activated carbon as a color removal or waste removal in general would be enormous.

Apple is considered as one of the most widespread fruits in Kosovo, totaling to 46% of the entire production. Our study was based on dye removal of methylene blue, methyl orange and phenolphthalein with bio sorbent, in this research with apple peels. The adsorbent was firstly double washed with distillated water, and then was dried in 70oC until it reached constant weight, and was finally grinded and milled to one mesh of dimensions. Peels were used as untreated and in treated form (with HNO3 0.4 mol/dm3) for comparison purposes.

The study was done in different conditions, such as varying concentrations of dye solution, different times, magnetic stirring etc.

For comparison purposes we used activated carbon in the same conditions; based on the obtained results, it can easily be concluded that the sorption capacity of the peels is quite high compared to the other available adsorbents, and cost wise it is much cheaper.



Kaltrina Jusufi, Jeton Halili, Avni Berisha, Mirlinda Alija, Valbonë Mehmeti, Lauresha Këpuska, Adelina Halili, Bardha Korça

University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo

Section: Biomaterials

Water color is often caused by dissolved organic matter, e.g. humic and fulvic acids (organic decomposition products from vegetation).  The color level can often be a good indicator of the organic content of water.  Reduced color, and hence reduction of the organic matter in the water, is therefore an important parameter to control to prevent damage to the industrial process.

In our research we used bio-sorbents such as potato peels as color removal from organic dyes. We used phenolphthalein, methyl orange and blue methyl as organic dyes. The concentration of colored organic molecules ranged from the highest 1x10-3, 5x10-4, 1x10-4, 5x10-5 to the lowest of 1x10-5 mol/L, in time periods of 5 minutes, 15 min, and 30 min to 1 hour, activated and non-activated bio sorbent etc.

Overall, the study found that the bio sorbent peels such as potato peels were successful in color removal from the organic molecules. Comparing to activated coal, the study showed promising results that could be used in the future.



Kaltrina Jusufi, Jeton Halili, Avni Berisha, Adelina Halili, Valbonë Mehmeti, Bardha Korça

University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo

Section: Biomaterials

Heavy metals exist in surface waters in colloidal, particulate and dissolved phases, although dissolved concentrations are generally low. The behavior of metals in natural waters is a function of the substrate sediment composition, the suspended sediment composition, and the water chemistry.

Numerous industrial activities contribute to the pollution with heavy metals directly or indirectly in the atmosphere through the release of solid or gaseous waste, and wastewater. It is now a known fact that pollution with heavy metals is a major concern, particularly when they penetrate in the food chain directly.

In our study we determined the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn etc. in numerous rivers in Kosovo in different periods of the year of 2014. The measurements of heavy metals were done with the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) technique. From the results that we gained, we can conclude that the rivers are highly contaminated due to the industry discharges, but further analysis are required for a clearer overview.



Jeton Halili, Avni Berisha, Adelina Halili, Valbonë Mehmeti, Kaltrina Jusufi, Taulant Demelezi

UP, Department of Chemistry, Pristina, Kosovo

Section: Biomaterials

 Vitamin C (ascorbic acid - AA) has a key role in body health. It is present broadly in food, plant and animal tissues, but it cannot be synthesized by the human body. A recommended daily intake of AA is about 70–90 mg, insufficient intake will have as consequence the appearance of different symptoms (of scurvy, gingival bleeding, and so on); the excess of AA intake will also contribute to urinary stone, diarrhea and stomach convulsion. Due to the importance of AA its determination is very important. In our study we used a supercritical (SC) CO2 extraction of AA from aqueous model systems containing AA dissolved in phosphate buffer. The experimental setup consisted of CO2 tank, pumps, extractor vessel, oven, valves, flow meter, pressure and temperature controller.  The monitoring of AA concentration was done by immersing two Pt electrodes (one serving as indicator electrode and the other one as working electrode, a graphite rod served as counter electrode ) directly into extraction vessel and assessing electrochemically the AA content through it oxidation peak by the use of cyclic voltammetry. During our research, we used the static technique of SC-CO2 extraction. Further work was conducted by studding the effect of two surfactants: Triton-X100 and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate on the supercritical extraction efficiency of AA. 




Ljiljana Korugic-Karasz1, Murat Tonga2, Patrick Taylor2, Eugene Wilusz3, Paul Lahti2, Frank Karasz1

1Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Amherst, United States
2Department of Chemistry, Amherst, United States
3Natick Soldier RDE Center, Natick, United States

Section: Biomedical Engineering

This work aims to develop organic polymer based thermoelectric (TE) materials and to explore possibilities of biomedical and other applications of these materials. Based on previous research (3) we prepared drop cast films of commercially available poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) with single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). The effects of solvent and molecular weight on the thermoelectric performance of nondoped and I2doped samples were investigated as a function of SWCNT concentration (0-50 wt %). The samples fabricated with the same molecular weight in a non-aromatic halogenated solvent showed higher power factors with an increasing trend for higher loads of SWCNT. In addition, samples made from high molecular weight polymer gave higher TE power factors by 3-4 fold than those of low molecular weight polymer based samples that were fabricated under the same experimental conditions. Moreover, the electrical conductivity of the samples in all variable conditions gave an increasing trend with elevated concentration of SWCNT, even before doping with iodine. However, Seebeck coefficients showed a decreasing trend with increased concentration of SWCNT in all conditions. Also, Seebeck coefficients of the samples made from low molecular weight polymer were slightly higher thanthose of high molecular weight polymer.



Keywords: thermoelectric, implantable medical, Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene], SWCNT



1. Cadel A., Dionisl A., Sardini E., Serpelloni M., Meas.Sci.Technol. 25 (2014)b012003

2. Sue C.Y., Tsai n.C; App. Eng. 93 (2012) 390-403

3. Taylor P.S., Korugic-Karasz Lj., Wilusz E., Lahti P.M., Karasz F.E.; Syn. Mtl. 185-186 (2013) 




Slavica Gajić1, Saša Ćirković2, Jasna Ristić-Djurović2, Andjelija Ilić2, Drago Djordjević3, Vesna Spasić-Jokić4

1School of Electrical Engineering, University of Banja Luka, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
2Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
3School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
4Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia

Section: Biomedical Engineering

Omnipresence of electromagnetic fields not only in human environment but all over the Earth raises questions about the positive or negative nature, extent, and threshold levels of influence of this non-ionizing radiation on living organisms. In particular, it has been shown that static magnetic and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields have significant effects on skeletal, immune, cardio-vascular, reproductive, as well as central nervous system. Complexity of electromagnetic fields, i.e., their magnitude, direction, orientation, spatial as well as temporal dependence and gradients, along with requirements related to the specifics of biomedical experiments, e.g., uncertainty of sample positions in in vivo experiments, requirements related to experimental volume size and orientation, temperature, light, etc., impose to biomedical researchers a challenging task when describing and specifying their experimental conditions. An exposure system which provides homogeneous field throughout the experimental volume significantly reduces ambiguities. With the aim to provide the field that will also be scalable and relatively strong within the experimental volume that is large enough for in vivo as well as in vitro experiments, we considered a solenoid. High homogeneity of the field was achieved with inner modifications of solenoid cross-section. The designed exposure system provides the field with the maximal magnitude of 165 mT and homogeneity of 2 % in the experimental volume of size 30 cm x 30 cm x 40 cm.



Octavian Ciobanu1, Gabriela Ciobanu2

1“Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Bioengineering, Iasi, Romania
2”Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, Iasi, Romania

Section: Biomedical Engineering

Paper approaches the study on the use of a low cost Kinect sensor for 3D scans and 3D reconstructions of human parts. The Kinect depth sensor used in this work is based on a webcam-style device and dedicated software. It uses a structured light technique in order to scan and reconstruct 3D surfaces. The study was made in order to observe the applicability of the Kinect based 3D scans in the case of anatomic surfaces. Different anatomic surfaces were scanned and 3D reconstructed using the Kinect sensor and the Skanect software. The results of the study show that the Kinect based 3D scans have good performances in the case of large surfaces concavities but this technique is not suitable for the case of small surfaces with multiple details. Kinect based scans may have a lot of applications in the medical engineering area.

 Keywords: 3D scanning, Kinect, bioengineering, application.




Ivan Pavlović, Ana Todorović, Vesna Stojiljković, Ljubica Gavrilović, Nataša Popović, Snežana B. Pajović, Snežana Pejić

Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Endocrinology, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Biomedicine

Renal cell carcinoma is the most common and the most lethal type of kidney cancer with the highest incidence in developed countries. At the moment of diagnosis many patients already have developed metastases. Tobacco smoking, obesity, hypertension and occupational exposure are established risk factors. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are antioxidant enzymes (AOE) that have a key role in protecting from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in pathological processes. We examined the antioxidant capacity of tumour tissue in patients with clear cell type of renal cell carcinoma. The results showed a significant decrease of AOE activities in tumour tissue compared to normal kidney tissue, indicating that tumour tissue is under permanent oxidative stress. Renal cell carcinoma is highly resistant to radiation therapy, which is also associated with free radical production. Since the tumour tissue has impaired AO capacity, the findings of this study may contribute to the improvement of the potential therapeutic treatments.



Zorica Becker-Kojic1, Annie Schott1, Ivan Zipancic2, Vicente Hrabaza3, Vicente Herranz Perez4, Jose Maria Garcia Verdugo4

1ACA CELL Biotech, Heidelberg, Germany
2Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, Moncada, Valencia, Spain., Valencia, Spain
3Principe Felipe Research Centre, Valencia, Spain., Valencia, Spain
4Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain, Valencia, Spain

Section: Biomedicine

Human neurological disorders are caused by a loss of neural or glial cells in the brain. Cell replacement therapy should provide the basis  for the development of new therapeutic strategies for treating many incurable neurologic disorders. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation could replace the damaged tissue providing a cure effects.

Pluripotent stem cells,  embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or multipotent adult  stem cells can be explored for tackling neuronal diseases. Each of this cell types has various disadvantages and contemporary there is no efficient way to obtain autologous neural stem cells.

Here, we report about human GPI-linked glycoprotein ACA, a receptor involved in the developmentally conserved signalling pathways. Crosslinking of ACA initiates via PI3K/Akt/mTOR/PTEN, a process of de-differentiation of blood progenitor cells leading to generation of ACA pluripotent stem cells capable of differentiating into cell types of  all three germ layers.

Blood derived ACA pluripotent stem cells differentiate in vitro into neural cells with long branching structures which is confirmed by means of geno-and pheno-typic  analyis.

Phenotypic analysis confirmed the expression of various neuro-lineage markers. ACA neuro cells express neuron specific class III beta - tubulin abundantly found in brain, nestin an intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is implicated in radial growth of the axon,  as well as early oligodendrocyte marker O4.

Our data confirms that blood - derived ACA  stem cells  posses a potential to differentiate into ectoderm represented by neuroectodermal cells and indicate a potential to turn blood to brain.

Above all, ACA cells differentiate in situ upon transplantataion in cortex and striatum of immunocpromosed mice into neural progenitor cells expressing vimentin and N-CAM providing so the  pool of human NSCs which can be exploited for customised therapy of injured diseased brain.





Amina Selimović1, Selma Milišić2, Ermina Mujičić3

1Pediatric Clinic of the University Clinical Centre of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
2Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
3Department for Cardioanesthesiology, Clinic for anesthesiology, reanimation and intensive care of University Clinical Center of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Section: Biomedicine

Aim: The aim of this study is to present the first total number of tested children in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the number of children with positive sweat test. During the study we determined the number of ill children, the median age of children with cystic fibrosis, date of initial diagnosis, an average amount of chloride in the sweat. Material and methods: The study was a retrospective, conducted at the Department of Pulmonology Pediatric Clinic of University Clinical Center of Sarajevo. Results: In the period from March 2003 to December 2014, we have tested 625 children. 351 child were from Sarajevo Canton and 272 children from other cantons. Female children were more affected then male children, in the ratio of 1: 1,105. An average age of female children was 4.19±4.26 years, and the male 2.15±3.11 years. The median concentration of chloride in the sweat measured by sweat test was for male children 103.05±21.29 mmol/L, and for the female children 96.05±28.85 mmol/L. Conclusion: Most of children in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina have ∆F508 gene mutation. In the post-war period we started to use a sweat test. Male children tend to live longer than female children with CF.



Tanja Dzopalic1, Dragana Zmijanjac2, Adil Ehmedah2, Boris Djindjic1, Dejan Krstic3, Marija Dakovic-Bjelakovic1, Biljana Bozic-Nedeljkovic2

1Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
2Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
3Faculty of Occupational Safety, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia

Section: Biomedicine

Background: Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is an oligomineral found naturally in water, plants, and animals. One of the most important sources of this mineral is drinking water where certain amount of dissolved amorphous silicon dioxide can be detected. Lack of SiO2 is associated with moderate disorders in the metabolism of the bone tissue. Aluminum food intake enhances inflammation and the production of inflammatory cytokines. It is shown that the silicon dioxide has an antagonistic effect with the aluminum in the body and may have a preventive role in the numerous diseases. Therefore, the application of natural protectors that have the ability to reduce inflammatory responses and other harmful effects of aluminum are of special importance for contemporary nutrition.

Aim: The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of silicon dioxide enriched water during chronic ingestion of aluminum on functional characteristics of peritoneal macrophages as one of the best-studied macrophage population.

Material and Methods: We used model of chronic intoxication with aluminum for a period of 90 days by gavages with a solution of aluminum chloride in the form of aluminum salt dissolved in distilled water (1.6 mg/kg in 0.5 ml daily water intake). In total, 21 female Wistar Albino rats were divided into 3 groups, each consisting of 7 animals: chronically intoxicated with aluminum [non-treated (NT) and per os treated (T) with water enriched in silicon dioxide (20 mg/l)] and sham-intoxicated (S). PMF (LPS- or PMA-stimulated) were evaluated according to phagocytic activity and metabolic activity after 24h cultivation in vitro. The study also included evaluation of supernatant cytokine (TNF-α, soluble (s) ICAM-1) concentration in supernatants by ELISA method.

Results: PMF from animals chronically intoxicated with aluminum (NT) showed lower metabolic viability/activity compared with PMF isolated from sham animals (S). Treatment of intoxicated animals with water enriched in SiO2 partially restored metabolic viability. T-PMF had higher metabolic viability compared to NT-PMF but still significantly lower than S-PMF. PMF of aluminum-intoxicated animals (NT-PMF) showed very low phagocytic activity, whereas SiOenriched water significantly up-regulated this activity. A daily intake of aluminum increasedthe release of TNF-α, while the SiOtreatment reduced these levels. Up-regulated ICAM-1 shredding by T-PMFwere followed by the production of TNF-α.

Conclusion: Our study showed that treatment with water enriched with SiO2 in concentration of 20 mg/L partially normalized characteristic of PMF of animals intoxicated with aluminum. We can suggest that SiO2 could be a natural antidote of the aluminum and we may presume its possible benefit role in decreasing the aluminum toxicity commonly present in water and food.




Mirjana Čolović1, Vesna Vasić1, Ulrich Kortz2, Danijela Krstić3

1Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
2Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany
3University School of Medicine, Institute of Medical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Biomedicine

Polyoxometalates (POMs) are negatively charged inorganic compounds which contain early transition metal ions such as tungsten, molybdenum, niobium, antimony or vanadium, surrounded by oxygen atoms. Furthermore, POMs have been shown to exhibit biological activities in vitro as well as in vivo, including anticancer, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, antiviral, and antidiabetic activities. Due to their negative charges they bear resemblance to nucleotides and therefore affect activity of nucleotide-dependent enzymes.

Na+/K+-ATPase (sodium pump) belongs to the P-type ATPase family, the members of which are able to utilize the energy of ATP to transport ions against their electrochemical gradient. Na+/K+-ATPase is a cell membrane located enzyme that establishes and maintains the high internal K+ and low internal Na+ concentrations, characteristic and essential for normal cellular activities of most animal cells. Moreover, Na+/K+-ATPase interacts with neighboring membrane proteins and organized cytosolic cascades of signaling proteins to send messages to the intracellular organelles. Thus, this function of sodium pump as a receptor and signaling mediator suggests that Na+/K+-ATPase has pivotal role in cancer cell migration and supports the view that Na+/K+-ATPase could be an important target for the development of anti-cancer drugs.

In this study, the in vitro influence of six new synthesized POMs containing tungstate on Na+/K+-ATPase activity was investigated. The tested POMs compounds are soluble in water, and stable at physiological pH value. Na+/K+-ATPase is commercially available and purified from porcine cerebral cortex. The various concentrations (from 1 × 10-7 to 1 × 10-3 mol/L) of POMs were exposed to the enzyme during 15 min at 37 ºC. The obtained results showed that NaK7[SiV3W9O40] × 10H2O, K7[Ti2PW10O40], and K6[PV3W9O40] × 3H2O possess the most potent inhibitory potential toward Na+/K+-ATPase. Micromolar concentrations of these compounds result in the reduced enzyme activity. The calculated IC50 values, defined as the inhibitory concentration inducing a 50% decrease in the enzyme activity compared to control value, for NaK7[SiV3W9O40] × 10H2O, K7[Ti2PW10O40], and K6[PV3W9O40] × 3H2O are 1.7 × 10-6, 3.8 × 10-6, and 5 × 10-6 mol/L, respectively. Na6[TeW6O24] × 22H2O and (NH4)14[NaP5W30O110] × 31H2O demonstrated the weakest inhibitory power, causing 50% inhibition at the concentrations of 5 × 10-4 and 1.5 × 10-4 mol/L, respectively. Finally, K6H2[TiW11CoO40] × 13H2O induced 50% Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition at the concentration of 5 × 10-5 mol/L. All obtained inhibition curves follow sigmoidal function and serves for the determination of IC50 values.




Mirjana Čolović1, Vesna Vasić1, Ulrich Kortz2, Danijela Krstić3

1Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
2Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany
3University School of Medicine, Institute of Medical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Biomedicine

Polyoxometalates (POMs) are polyanionic oligomeric aggregates of transition metal ions, such as tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, etc. held together by oxygen bridges, with a high density of negative charge. They are relatively stable, some even highly stable in aqueous solutions at biological pH values. In addition to applications in catalysis, separations, analysis, and as electrondense imaging agents, some of these complexes have been shown to exhibit biological activity in vitro as well as in vivo ranging from anti-cancer, antibiotic, and antiviral to antidiabetic effects. Recent investigations reported some polyoxotungstates as reversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), making them potential anti-Alzheimer's drugs.

AChE is a serine hydrolase mainly found at neuromuscular junctions and cholinergic brain synapses. Its principal biological role is termination of impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses. Reversible inhibitors of AChE mostly have therapeutic applications, while toxic effects are associated with irreversible AChE activity modulators. Reversible inhibitors play an important role in pharmacological manipulation of the enzyme activity, and have been applied in the diagnostic and/or treatment of various diseases such as: myasthenia gravis, AD, postoperative ileus, bladder distention, glaucoma, as well as antidote to anticholinergic overdose.

The effect of four new synthesized polyoxotungstates soluble in water on AChE activity was studied. AChE is purified from electric eel and commercially available. The enzyme was in vitro treated with the polyoxotungstates in concentration range from 1 × 10-7 to 1 × 10-3 mol/L at 37 ºC for 15 min, and incubation time was 12 min. The obtained dependence remaining enzyme activity vs. the inhibitor concentration fitted sigmoidal function. IC50 values, indicating the enzyme sensitivity toward the inhibitor and the inhibitory capacity of the analyzed compounds, were determined from the inhibition sigmoidal curves. Na10[H2W12O42] × 27H2O did not markedly reduce AChE activity at highest investigated concentration (1 mmol/L). K7[SiV3W9O40] × 10H2O exhibited a weak inhibitory potential, causing 50% decrease in the enzyme activity at 5 × 10-4  mol/L. However, AChE sensitivity in the presence of K7[Ti2PW10O40] was several hundred times higher, reaching IC50  at 1.15 × 10-6  mol/L. Furthermore, (NH4)14[NaP5W30O110] × 31H2O demonstrated the strongest capacity to inhibit AChE. In the presence of its low concentration of 2 × 10-8 mol/L, the enzyme activity was noticeably reduced related to the control value (obtained without inhibitor), while 50% decrease in AChE activity was achieved at 3.8 × 10-7 mol/L.







Tanja Novaković1, Zana Dolićanin2, Goran Babić3, Nataša Đorđević2

1Department for Cytogenetic Diagnostics, Clinical Centre “Kragujevac”, Kragujevac, Serbia
2Department of Biomedical Sciences, State University of Novi Pazar, Novi Pazar, Serbia
3Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia

Section: Biomedicine

Objective: Maternal dysfunction of thyroid gland during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, placental abruption, hypertensive disorders and growth restriction. Thyroid hormones have a significant role in regulation of activation of leucocytes, which are important sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. In hyperthyroid patients have been found increase number of eosinophils and mononuclear cells as well as the reduction in the number of neutrophils. Activated leucocytes produce large amount of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that can damage DNA, lead to genomic instability and consequence to a formation of micronuclei.

Micronuclei frequency in cells cytoplasm is the sensitive biomarker of DNA damage by endogenous and exogenous toxins. Micronuclei are the structures formed as a result of DNA fragmentation or lagging of acentric chromosome or chromatid during mitosis. The increased frequency of micronuclei as biomarkers of genetic instability is shown in cancer, diabetes, autoimmune, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases

Methods: The samples of blood and amniotic fluid were collected from healthy pregnant women and pregnant women with hypothyroidism (16-18 weeks of gestation). Hematological characteristics were determined by using standard hematological methods. The frequency of micronuclei was determined in fetal cells after amniocentesis by using standard cytogenetic methods.

Results: The results of this study showed significant higher levels of eosinophils number in hypothyroidism than in healthy pregnant women. Eosinophil and basophil percentage distribution also were documented in hypothyroidism. The increased fetal cells micronuclei frequency and their correlation with eosinophil and basophils were indicated. 

Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that an increased percentage and activities of eosinophils and basophils in hypothyroidism contribute to a formation of micronuclei in fetal cells.



Goran Babić1, Snežana Marković2, Zana Dolićanin3, Nataša Đorđević3, Jelena Milošević1

1Medical Faculty, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia
2Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia
3Department of Biomedical Sciences, State University of Novi Pazar, Novi Pazar, Serbia

Section: Biomedicine

OBJECTIVE: It is known that oxidative stress have role in endothelial dysfunction and reduction of NO bioavailability in clinical manifestation of preeclampsia. Recent studies indicate that endothelial dysfunction and reduced NO bioavailability in preeclampsia related to abnormal metabolism of estrogen and reduced plasma level of 17b-estradiol. The present study shows in vivo evidence for benefit short term 17b-estradiol therapy in endothelial function in women with mild preeclampsia.

STUDY DESING: Intramuscular injections of 10 mg 17beta-estradiol were administrated to 22 healthy and 20 preeclamptic pregnant women during three days before induction of labour. Analyses of estradiol concentrations, superoxide anion (O2.-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitrites (NO2-) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) were performed before and during the therapy.

RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrated reduction of mean arterial pressure that was accompanied by decreased plasma concentrations of O2.-, H2O2 and NO2- in preeclamptic women during 17b-estradiol therapy. Also we observed that changes of value of mean arterial pressure were positive correlated to changes of plasma concentration of oxidative stress markers. Serum 17b-estradiol concentrations were unchanged during short term therapy.

CONCLUSION: Our finding indicates the importance of 17b-estradiol in maintaining vascular function in preeclampsia and supports the investigations of other authors who reported association of estrogens metabolism and vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia.



Slavica Shubeska Stratrova, Goran Petrovski, Snezana Markovik Temelkova

Clinic of endocrinology, diabetes and metabolic disorders, Skopje, Macedonia

Section: Biomedicine

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the technique of choice in the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD), the average concentration of mineral in a defined section of bone. Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by decreased bone mass, increased bone turnover, and increased susceptibility to fracture. Osteoporosis diagnosis is based on bone mineral density, which is generally measured in the spine and hip. Posteroanterior images of the lumbar spine include vertebral bodies L1–L4. The lowest-level data on the femoral neck and total hip are used for diagnosis. Diagnosis is based on T-score, normal being greater than –1.0; osteopenia, –1 to –2.5; and osteoporosis, less than –2.5.

Osteoporosis should not be diagnosed on the basis of densitometric criteria alone. Bone remodeling is also a crucial issue. Bone turnover markers (BTM) can be used to study changes in bone remodeling in osteoporosis. The combination of data from BMD and BTM may improve the monitoring of anti-resorptive therapy response and prediction of bone loss, osteoporosis development and risk of fractures. A high rate of bone turnover is associated with low BMD. Bone-turnover markers are released during bone formation or resorption and can be measured in blood. Osteoporosis is a result of a rather long evolution where in most cases bone resorption is increased, and is not compensated by an equally increased bone formation.

The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between the BMD and the concentration of biochemical bone turnover markers - type I collagen crosslinked C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) as a marker of bone resorption, and osteocalcin (OC) as a marker of bone formation, both expressed in ng/ml, and to evaluate BTM and the rate of bone remodeling in postmenopausal women (PM). According to T-score, patients were divided into three groups: patients with osteoporosis, patients with osteopenia and a control group consisting of patients with normal T-score.

Significant negative correlation was found between bone turnover markers, especially CTX and BMD in osteoporosis. Lowest BMD values in PM women with osteoporosis were associated with highest CTX values in comparison to PM women with osteopenia and control group, indicating highest bone resorption in PM women with osteoporosis discovered with DXA examination. Higher increase of the markers of bone resorption is a risk factor for osteoporosis in PM women. Postmenopausal osteoporotic women were characterized with highest CXT values indicating highest osteoporotic risk associated with osteoporosis in this group. CTX differentiated best the increased osteoportic risk in PM osteoporotic women compared to the other groups, confirming its predictive and diagnostic importance of osteoporosis. We concluded that both procedures BMD and BTM have a significant role in diagnosis and follow-up of patients with osteoporosis.



Slavica Shubeska Stratrova, Goran Petrovski, Snezana Markovik Temelkova

Clinic of endocrinology, diabetes and metabolic disorders, Skopje, Macedonia

Section: Biomedicine

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) enables body composition (BC) and body fat distribution (BFD) determination. DXA measurements of BFD may be useful in studies related to obesity-associated disease risk such as Cushing’s syndrome (CS). 

The aim of this study was to discover central obesity index (COI) as a respresentative of visceral obesity by evaluation of the differences of the BC and BFD as measured by DXA in women with CS with confirmed abdominal obesity in comparison with healthy control women (C) matched for age, menopausal status, and BMI and to discover accuracy of the estimated values eCOI in comparison with automatically determined COI. Also COI and COI of tissue mass (COIt) had been compared.

DXA examination was performed in women with confirmed CS (n=10) and in a group C (n=10), matched according to their mean age (40.32±11.25 yr.) in CS and 41.91±12.85 yr. in C as well as their BMI (28.89±3.53kg/m2 vs. 29.39±4.04kg/m2). COI as an android (A) to gynoid (G) tissue fat mass percentage (tfm%) ratio (A/G tfm%) was automatically determined by DXA machine during BC measurement but COI as A/G tissue mass ratio (COIt) was calculated. Estimated COI (eCOI) was calculated as a ratio between Atfm% in spine region and Gtfm% in hip region during DXA spine and hip examination.

Atfm% in CS (54.14±6.34) and C (49.29±6.31) and Gtfm% in CS (50.76±4,64) and C (52.76±4.28) were not significantly different (p>0.05). COI in CS (1.07±0,15) was higher compared to C (0.938±0.11) (p<0.036). eCOI in CS was (1.04±0.13) and it was significantly higher compared to (0.97±0.09) in C. COI and eCOI values were not significantly different (p>0.05) and correlated highly significantly in both groups CS and C (p<0.0001) as well as with Atfm% (p<0.001). Atm (6.67±1.45 kg) and Gtm (10.3±2.89 kg) in CS were not significantly different compared to (5.75±1.19 kg) and (11.8±1.66 kg) in C (p>0.05). COIt (A/G tm) in CS (0.67±0.1) was significantly higher compared to C (0.48±0.05) (p<0.0001). COIt correlated positively with A in group C (r=0.83)(p<0.01) but COI correlated with A in CS (r=0.76) and in C (r=0.79)(p<0.01). Only COIt correlated significantly negatively with G in CS (r=-0.66)(p<0.05). 

It can be concluded that BC should not be performed for COI determination because eCOI could be determined during regular spine and hip DXA measurements. Determination of eCOI is more practical, faster, with lower radiation and is more acceptable; moreover spine and hip bone mineral content is determined at the same time. COI and eCOI values correlated highly significantly in both groups, eCOI measurements were reliable and comparable to automatically measured COI. COIt value in CS was significantly higher than C (p<0.0001), compared to COI (p<0.036), differentiated them better and confirmed its positive association with central, abdominal fat and tissue mass, and abdominal BFD in CS and its positive relation with the abdominal obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. 




Eugeniya Kuzmina1, Elena Kovalenco2, Oleg Vatin1, Tatiana Mushkarina1, Vyacheslav Pavlov1

1A.Tsyb MRRC, branch of NMRRC, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Obninsk, Russia
2Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry. Acad. MM Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Section: Biomedicine

One mechanism of tumor escape from immune surveillance and destruction is transformed cells dropping molecules expression density which plays a role in the recognition of cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes. The aim of research is assess the concentration of the soluble form of stress-induced molecule of tumor-associated protein sMICA in the blood of cancer patients and compared with spontaneous cytotoxicity blood mononuclear cells. The study included 311 patients with melanoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma(NHL), Hodgkin’s lymphoma(HL), breast(BC), thyroid(TC), prostate(PC), cervical(UC), hypopharynx(PhC), bladder(BC), colon(CC), gastric(GC) cancer. Each form of cancer includes 10-80 patients. Control - data 59 healthy people. sMICA protein were determined by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) using a set of antibodies (R & D Systems, USA). The activity of NK-cells was determined by a cytotoxic assay lysis of  tumor cells K-562.

     The reference group sMICA completely absent or detected in quantities ranging from 15 to 235pg/ml (Me = 37 pg/ml). Level sMICA when TC, BC, PC, HL average did not exceed 80 pg/ml and did not differ from the norm. The median concentration sMICA in other cancer was higher and reached when the NHL - 291, CC -238 RTC, GC - 211 BC -186, WPG - 184 CC -140 pg / ml. This is significantly higher than the control group. If different forms of NHL level sMICA was different. The greatest number detected in diffuse large-cell lymphoma (Me = 334) and B-CLL  lymphoma (Me = 288 pg/ml). Evidently, tumor cells with reduced expression of MICA less recognizable NK cells. In turn, the reduction of tumor recognition molecules on killers reduce their activation and destruction of tumors. Assessment of spontaneous cytotoxicity of mononuclear blood in their ability to lyse tumor cells transplantable line K-562 showed that the total group of patients with NHL cytotoxic index below 2 times and made for different ratios of effector/target of 12 to 38%, compared to 30 - 45% in the control group.    Increasing the concentration of sMICA in the blood found in a number of cancers (NHL, RTC, RJ, breast cancer, cervical cancer and WGH). Increase their level in the NHL correlated with a decrease in blood mononuclear cells cytotoxicity. The findings expand the existing understanding of the mechanisms of the transformed cells escape from the control of the immune system. Presumably, high levels of tumor-associated molecules may reduce the functional activity of the cytotoxic lymphocytes, and contribute to the progression of the disease. Identified changes can be used to create new means of diagnosis and treatment of cancer with a similar mechanism of tumor escape from the immune control.




Tetiana Katrii, Olexiy Savchuk, Tetiana Vovk

Educational and Scientific Centre , Kyiv, Ukraine

Section: Biomedicine


Background Unfortunately ischemic stroke provoke irreversible changes in the organism and fully recovery was not observed. Some anomaly of the haemostasis system were shoved during the acute phase of ischemic stroke as well as post disease patients. The idea was explored the fact that specific autoantibody generated in the bloodstream during the acute phase and their existence past one year of disease provoke repetition of stroke or support stable disorders of organism.

Methods and Results Three fractions of immunoglobulin class G were separated: from the blood plasma of healthy donors, patients with atherothrombotic and cardioembolic ischemic stroke in acute phase of disease and the same fractions from the same patients one year past acute phase. The influence of the separated fractions on the process of hydrolysis of the specific chromogenic substrate by the key factors of the hemostatis system: thrombin, activated protein C and factor Xa were tested. The results were compared with our previous analysis of the effect of immunoglobulin class G obtained from the bloodstream of the patients with the same diseases in the acute phase of illness. The fact that IgG obtained from the donors plasma did not influenced tested process meaningful was proved in our previous research.

Conclusions It was proved that the influence of immunoglobulin class G all fractions separated from the blood plasma of patients one year past disease were less effective or was equal to zero during the hydrolysis of substrate by enzymes (thrombin and activated protein C). But, the same influence was more intensive during the hydrolysis of substrate by thrombin in comparison with immunoglobulin class G separated from plasma of patients in acute phase. For the both periods of disease IgG obtained from the plasma of the patients with cardioembolic ischemic stroke effected process of substrate hydrolysis by all examined factors more active in comparison with IgG isolated from the plasma of patients with atherothrombotic ischemic stroke.



Hleb Harbatsevich1, Natalia Loginova1, Tatsiana Koval’chuk1, Yaroslav Faletrov1, Srećko Trifunović2, Marko Živanović2, Snezana Marković2

1Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus
2University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia

Section: Biopharmaceuticals

The superoxide radical is a byproduct of cell respiration is one of the major factors involved in oxidative stress, tissue damage and development of various pathogenic physiologic conditions [1]. In this connection it is of topical interest to search for compounds decreasing the superoxide content in mammalian cells while behaving as low-molecular analogues of superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD mimics), particularly Cu(II) complexes [2]. It has been proposed that metal complexes with antioxidants as ligands may be effective as SOD mimics [1]. Among the compounds with such properties it is redox-active Cu(II) complexes with 1,2-dihydroxybenzene derivatives that deserve particular attention [3].
We have synthesized novel bioactive complexes of Cu(II) with 1,2-dihydroxybenzene derivatives: 3-(pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl)-5-tritylbenzene-1,2-diol, 3-(piperidin-1-ylmethyl)-5-tritylbenzene-1,2-diol, 3-(azepan-1-ylmethyl)-5-tritylbenzene-1,2-diol, 3-(morpholinomethyl)-5-tritylbenzene-1,2-diol, 3-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-5-tritylbenzene-1,2-diol. According to the data of elemental analysis, the molar ratio Cu(II) : ligand = 1 : 2. The results of thermogravimetric analysis demonstrate that the complexes are thermally stable up to 180oC, and that there is no water molecules in their coordination sphere. The molar conductivity values for acetonitrile solutions of the complexes testify that they are neutral. According to the data of spectral investigations, the coordination cores of the complexes are planar chromophores [CuN2O2]. Using enzymatic methods of superoxide generation employing a xanthine and xanthine oxidase assay [4], superoxide dismutase activity (IC50) of the complexes synthesized was determined, which was equal to 103.1 – 133.4 µmol∙ml–1. The results obtained on the SOD activity, along with a high degree of lipophilicity of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene derivatives and their complexes, allow the compounds synthesized to be regarded as hit compounds for developing new effective antioxidants – traps for superoxide. Moreover, the results of pharmacological screening of the compounds synthesized allow the latter to be regarded as hit-compounds with a high antimicrobial activity (MIC 1.6÷25.0 μg∙ml–1). The complexes were found to have a moderate inhibition activity against Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive ones are more sensitive to these compounds. What is more, the complexes demonstrate also some antiproliferative activity against HCT-116 cell line.
[1]       D.P. Riley, Chem. Rev. 99 (1999) 2573–2587.
[2]       A. Barik et al., Free Radical Biology & Medicine 39 (2005) 811–822
[3]       N.V. Loginova et al., in: Benzene and Its Derivatives: New Uses and Impacts on Environment and Human Health; NY (2012) 23–68.
[4]       N. Masuoka, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1688 (3) (2004) 245–249.



Alexander Stankov1, Svetla Gateva1, Gabriele Jovtchev1, Fridrich Gregan2

1Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, BAS, Sofia, Bulgaria
2Matej Bel University, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia

Section: Biopharmaceuticals


In the last decades natural plant extracts have become a subject of intensive research as a form of medical treatment and an integral part of the cosmetic industry. These bioactive natural compounds possess anticytotoxic, antimutagenic properties, as well as protective potential against reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antimutagenic potential correlates frequently with their antioxidant capacity. The aim of the present study is to determine and compare the anticytotoxic and antigenotoxic effect of Papaver rhoeas L. (poppy) and Salvia officinalis L. (sage) water extracts against ROS inducer zeocin in two types of test-systems.


In the present work the protective potential of water extracts of two angiosperms representatives - Papaver rhoeas L. (Papaveraceae) and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) - was investigated in vitro using two different model test-systems: meristems cells of Hordeum vulgare (reconstructed karyotype МК 14/2034) and human lymphocytes. Chromosome aberrations (CA), induction of aberration hot spots for barley chromosomes, micronuclei (MN) and mitotic activity (MI) were evaluated as endpoints.


Papaver rhoeas L. as well as Salvia officinalis L. water extracts exhibit cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in barley root tip meristem cells and human lymphocyte cultures at low concentrations. On the other hand both bioactive compounds possess clearly anticytotoxic/anticlastogenic potential to inhibit and decrease the harmful effects of the radiomimetic zeocin.

The protective potential of both plant extracts against the clastogenic effect of zeocin depends on the experimental design and concentration applied.


Our results indicated that, the water extracts of Papaver rhoeas L. and Salvia officinalis L. had the potential to reduce the clastogenic effect of zeocin in meristems cells of barley and human lymphocytes, irrespective of their different place on the hierarchic level. Further investigations are necessary for chemical characterization of the active compounds in these plant extracts. The obtained data could be useful to upgrade health research programs and prophylactic therapy using of natural plant compounds.


This work was supported by the Bulgarian Ministry of Education, Youth and Science of Bulgaria under grant: “Evaluation of DNA protective potential of bioactive natural compounds towards DNA damaging agents”, BIONATPROT, BSTC/ Slovakia/01/1.



ilma robo1, Saimir Heta2

1Albanian Univerisity, Tirana, Albania
2University Hospital Center, Pediatric Surgery, Pediatrician Surgeon, Tirane, Albania

Section: Biopharmaceuticals

Purpose: For treatment of periodontal diseases are preferred antibiotic combinations, with the aim of hitting bacterial flora, according to its characteristics, aerobic anaerobic, gram-negativ and gram-positiv, with certain antibiotics that act on certain bacteria. The aim of the study is analyzing the side effects of the used antibiotics.

Materials and methods: From literature are gathered datas on the side effects (preferably expressed in percent) of some antibiotics, the favorites in periodontal recipes. These data are sorted by determining antibiotic.

Results: In the case of providing periodontal prescription, patient is in risk for 5% allergy, 3% nephritis, hematological problems 2-2.5%, 5.5% gastrointestinal problems, 2% disturbance in the nervous system, 5.5% allergic signs on the skin, problems with electrolytes displayed are in minor of %. Interaction with different medications is present in almost all cases! Touching the body systems is in total value of 4%; the maximum value is expressed in the skin, the minimum value on the nervous system.

Conclusions: Cross allergies is in high value, because of the expressed structural similarity of antibiotics! Giving a recipe, we've balance the % of side effects, the % of bacterial resistance and the % of the success of the recommended dose of antibiotics.

Keywords: antibiotic, via side effects, periodontology.



Mikio Kato, Yuta Okubo

Osaka Prefecture University Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Sakai, Japan

Section: Biophysics

Ionizing radiation causes damage to biological components via the disruption of chemical bonds and via chemical modification by radicals originating from water. Although bacterial cells are known to lose the ability for cell growth upon irradiation, other physiological processes such as metabolism, motility, and gene expression do not cease immediately after irradiation.  In that regard, we had examined the bacterial motility after irradiation with accelerated proton beam and gamma rays, and found that the bacterial flagellar motor was robust against ionizing radiation at a dose to stop the bacterial growth.

Bacterial motility is closely related to the chemotactic responses. Here we examined the effect of gamma irradiation on the bacterial response to a repellent using E. coli strain JM109. Negative chemotactic response (escaping from repellent) was evaluated using the test-tube method. After irradiation, the bacterial cell suspensions (turbid enough to see) were layered on 1% agar containing motility medium supplemented with 10% glycerol (one of the repellents for E. coli) in the test tubes. The test-tube method allowed the visualization of the clear area above the agar after a 30-min incubation. Samples irradiated (0.5 kGy ~ 2.0 kGy)did not show a clear area in the test tubes, or the clear area was much narrower than the non-irradiated control. The average swimming speed of the cells in non-irradiated and irradiated samples was not significantly different, as reported before. These results suggest that the signal transduction system responsible for the chemotactic response is more susceptible to gamma irradiation than flagellar motors.



Slavica Brkić1, Mirjana Pinjuh2

1Faculty of Science and Education,University of Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
2Univerity Hospital, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Section: Biophysics

We will discuss an application of quantum dots in biology and medicine as biological markers to reveal the presence of a certain biological structure, such as a cancer cell. In a process known as fluorescence, quantum dots emit optical radiation with very narrow frequency spectrum called the luminescence linewidth. The different-sized dots (cores) are coated with multilayered shells to tailor their electronic, cemical, or biological propertis. A shell material (e.g. ZnS) has to be transparent and that can be attached to the core to provide a surface to attach biological structure.The energy reradiated by the dot is less than that which excites the dot; the radiated wavelengths of the fluorescence are longer and the difference is known as Stoces shift. Since the illuminationg energy and the reradiated energy can be separated (filtered) , the Stoces shift can be used as biological marker. This provides an advantage for quantum dots compared with fluuorescent dyes, which radiate at nearly the same wavelenght as their excitation.



Slobodan Todosijević1, Zlatan Šoškić1, Slobodanka Galović2

1Faculty of Mechanical and Civil Engineering in Kraljevo University of Kragujevac, Kraljevo, Serbia
2Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Biophysics

The understanding of the transport mechanisms in macromolecular structures such as biological tissues is very poor. The recent theoretical studies indicated that the transport mechanisms of heat generated by absorption on infra-red and visible light are different. In this paper is proposed a combination of experimental techniques that would enable simultaneous measurement of optical and thermal properties of macromolecular structures excited by light with wide spectrum. The results of the experiments would enable credible testing of validity of the predictions of the theoretical studies, and further insight of the transport processes in biological tissues. Also, this could be base for development novel biomedical diagnostic.



Dora Krezhova1, Svetla Maneva2, Nikolay Petrov2, Antoniy Stoev2, Irina Moskova3

1Space Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
2Institute of soil science, agrotechnology and plant protection, Bulgarian Academy of Agriculture, Sofia, Bulgaria
3Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria

Section: Biophysics

Hyperspectral remote sensing technique based on reflectance measurements in the visible and near infrared spectral ranges, last years proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of plants that result from the changes of environment and different accompanying stress factors. Adverse growing conditions give rise to biophysical (morphological, physiological, biochemical) changes that affect the manner with which plants interact with light. All green vegetation species have unique spectral features, mainly because of the chlorophyll and carotenoid, and other pigments, and water content. Because spectral reflectance is a function of tissue optical properties and biochemical content (chlorophyll, water, dry matter, etc.) of the plants, and the illumination conditions it may be used to collect information on several important biophysical parameters such as color and the spectral signature of features, vegetation chlorophyll absorption characteristics, vegetation moisture content, etc.

In this paper some applications of leaf spectral reflectance for assessment the effects of adverse environmental conditions to plant biophysical parameters are discussed. Stress factors such as enhanced UV-radiation, salinity, viral infections, were applied to some young plants (potato, tomato, apples, plums). Hyperspectral reflectance data were collected by means of a portable fiber-optics spectrometer in the visible and near infrared spectral ranges (350-1100 nm). The differences between the reflectance data of healthy (control) and injured (stressed) species were assessed by means of statistical (Student’s t-criterion), first derivative, cluster analyses and some vegetation indices. Statistical analyses were carried out in four most informative for the investigated species regions: green (520-580 nm), red (640-680 nm), red edge (680-720 nm) and near infrared (720-780 nm). The strong relationship, which was found between the results from the remote sensing technique and some biochemical and serological analyses (stress markers, DAS-ELISA), indicates the importance of hyperspectral reflectance data for conducting, easily and without damage, rapid assessments of plant biophysical variables. Emphasis is put on current capability and future potential of remote sensing and on the optimum spectral region for sensing these biophysical variables.





Jasna Vujin, Djordje Jovanovic, Radmila Panajotovic

Institute of Physics Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Biophysics

Solid supported phospholipid-bilayer technology [1] is one of the major avenues for development of sensors and nanodevices, especially in the fields of proteomics. Since the drug targeting is usually aimed to the cell membrane associated proteins, building a well-tailored and sensitive biosensor is of utmost value [2].

On the other hand, modern research in material science explores the possibilities of materials suitable for building small, sensitive, and robust sensors. 2D-materials, such as graphene, MoS2, and WS2, in combination with lipid mono- and multilayers present an excellent base for building organic field-effect transistors (oFET), whose properties are able to meet these requirements [3-5].  

In order to accomplish a satisfactory design of such devices, it is necessary to produce thin (ideally homogenous, defect-free) films of graphene and other 2D-materials and establish their physico-chemical properties, alone and in combination with various biomolecular assemblies, such as lipids, cholesterol and biopolymers. In our study we have obtained composite thin films of these materials (from a few nm to several tens of nm) and explored the elecrostatic properties, structural topography, and chemical bonds of DPPC, DPHyPC, sphingomyelin and cholesterol supported on graphene, MoS2 and WS2 thin films.  

The AFM, KPFM, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy have been employed for that purpose.





1. Ann E. Oliver, Atul N. Parikh, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1798 (2010) 839–850

2. Edward T. Castellana, Paul S. Cremer, Surface Science Reports 61 (2006) 429–444

3. Nengjie Huo, Shengxue Yang, Zhongming Wei, Shu-Shen Li, Jian-Bai Xia and Jingbo Li, Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 5209

4. Jitendra N. Tiwari, Varun Vij, K. Christian Kemp, and Kwang S. Kim, ACS Nano Article ASAP (2015) Open access

5. Ann E. Oliver, Atul N. Parikh, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1798 (2010) 839–850




Dora Krezhova1, Irina Moskova2, Svetla Maneva3, Nikolay Petrov3, Antoniy Stoev3

1Space Research and Technology Institute, Sofia, Bulgaria
2Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
3Institute of soil science, agrotechnology and plant protection, Bulgarian Academy of Agriculture, Sofia, Bulgaria

Section: Biophysics

Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. It may be used to collect information on several important biophysical variables. Monitoring of plants status and functioning helps in making timely management decisions. Hyperspectral remote sensing technique based on reflectance measurements in visible and near infrared spectral ranges, proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the changes of the environmental and different stress factors. Adverse growing conditions give rise to biophysics (morphological, physiological, biochemical) changes that affect the manner with which plants interact with light. All green vegetation species have unique spectral features, mainly because of the chlorophyll and carotenoid, and other pigments, and water content. Spectral reflectance is a function of tissue optical properties and biophysics parameters of the plants, and the illumination conditions. It may be used to collect information on several important biophysics variables of plants such as color and the spectral signature of features, vegetation chlorophyll absorption characteristics, vegetation moisture content etc.

In this paper some applications of leaf reflectance for assessment the effects of adverse environmental conditions to plant biophysics parameters were discussed. Stress factors such as enhanced UV-radiation, salinity, viral infections, were applied to some young plants (potato, tomato, apples). Hyperspectral reflectance data were collected by means of a portable fiber-optics spectrometer in the visible and near infrared spectral ranges (450-850 nm). The differences between the reflectance data of healthy (control) and injured (stressed) species were assessed by means of statistical (Student’s t-criterion), first derivative, cluster analyses and some vegetation indices. Statistical analyses were made in four most informative for the investigated species regions: green (520-580 nm), red (640-680 nm), red edge (680-720 nm) and near infrared (720-780 nm). The strong relationship, which was found between the results from the remote sensing technique and some biochemical and serological analyses (stress markers, DAS-ELISA), indicates the importance of hyperspectral reflectance data for conducting, easily and without damage, rapid assessments of plant biophysics variables. Emphasis is placed on current remote sensing capability and future potential and on the optimum spectral region(s) for sensing these biophysical variables



Silvio R. De Luka1, Andjelija Ž. Ilić2, Saša Ćirković2, Drago M. Djordjević1, Jasna L. Ristić-Djurović2, Alexander M. Trbovich1

1School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
2Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Biophysics

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are toxic, short-lived, highly reactive by-products of normal physiological and metabolic cellular processes. Excessive production of ROS results in damage to proteins, lipids, DNA and RNA. Aerobic cells posses antioxidant scavenging mechanisms protective against the ROS damage. These relay on the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), vitamin E and vitamin C. Superoxide anion is converted to the hydrogen peroxide by the action of SOD: cytosolic (Cu/Zn-SOD), mitochondrial (Mn-SOD) or extracellular (Cu-SOD). Alterations in the expression of Cu/Zn-SOD have been implicated as a possible factor in several neurodegenerative disorders (Dröge 2002).
Static magnetic field (SMF) can, among other magnetobiological effects, induce changes in enzyme activity (Amara et al. 2006; Ghodbane et al. 2013). The metabolism of ROS becomes affected, with the reported effects to the lipid peroxidation, tissue damage, etc. Whereas the strong and moderately strong SMF can act through the combination of several biophysical mechanisms, it is now accepted that the radical pair mechanism induces changes in the rates and yields of certain biochemical reactions under the influence of weak to moderate SMF (Rodgers 2009). These effects are strongly dependent on the SMF intensity, which could be a reason for the variability of the experimental results obtained by different research groups using various exposure setups.
Free radicals, including the reactive oxygen species, are ubiquitous in biology. Transition metal ions, the compounds of many proteins and enzymes, can act as radical species in biochemical reactions, enabling the modulation by the SMF of the redox cycles of metal-ion containing enzymes. This motivates the investigation not only into the exposure end effects such as the tissue damage, but also into the effects on the molecular level such as the distribution of various metals after exposure to the SMF. Current status of the observed effects to the organism is reviewed by putting into perspective the available data on the SMF induced effects as well as possible health implications.

Dröge W. 2002. Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function. Physiol Rev 82: 47-95.
Amara S. et al. 2006. Effects of subchronic exposure to static magnetic field on testicular function in rats. Arch Med Res 37(8):947-952.
Ghodbane S. et al. 2013. Bioeffects of static magnetic fields: oxidative stress, genotoxic effects, and cancer studies. BioMed Research International 2013: 602987.
Rodgers CT. 2009. Magnetic field effects in chemical systems. Pure Appl Chem 81(1): 19-43.



Anna A. Oleshkevich

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education , Moscow, Russia

Section: Biophysics

The purpose of our research was to identify the specific effects of modulated ultrasonic waves with different frequency pulse modulation in various organophotoheterotrophic prokaryotes cells. As the test objects the representatives of unicellular organisms, bacteria and archaea, were selected, i.m. – the culture of marine luminescent halotolerant bacteria Alivibrio fischeri 6 and extremely halophilic culture of archaea Halobacterium halobium (Natrinema pallidum nom. Nov. NCIMB 777).

A.fischeri culture medium was used with the following composition (g/l): peptone – 10, yeast extract – 1, NaCl – 30, Na2HPO4 – 5.3, KH2PO4 – 2.1, (NH4)2SO4 – 0.5, MgSO4 × 7H2O – 0.1, glycerin – 3 ml; pH 7.4. The growth medium N.pallidum included (g/l): yeast extract – 10, casamino acid – 7.5, Na Citrate – 3, KCl – 2, NaCl – 250, MgSO4 × 7H2O – 20, FeCl2 × 4H2O – 0.036, MnCl2 × 4H2O– 0.36 mg; pH 7.4. As inoculum it was used cell cultures grown to stationary phase of growth in optimal conditions, respectively, at 20°C and 37°C in the same medium in flasks on a shaker. The intensity of crop growth was assessed by optical density slurries using a calorimeter KFK–2MP at 590 nm or 555 nm when FEKM. Cells were exposed for 15 min to ultrasound (US) intensity ISATA of 0.2 W/cm2 and 0.4 W/cm2 with modulation frequency range of 0.1 – 10 Hz and 100 – 1000 Hz using the US therapeutic apparatus UST–5. The carrier frequency was 880 kHz; modulating generators G3–112 and CP–110 provides the ability to create a modularize signal in a wide range of frequencies (0.001 Hz–1999 kHz).

It was found that a treatment with a modulation frequency of 10 Hz significantly stimulated the protein intake, growth and proliferation of A. fischeri cells and intensity of bacterial luminescence. Cells were well-preserved and under the higher modulation frequency of 100 Hz. 1000 Hz-modulation led first to a sharp increase in the emission, and then resulted in the destruction and death of the microorganism’s cell wall.

Cells of the archaea N.pallidum culture were more sensitive. The frequency range of 0.1 – 0.2 Hz changed the nature of growth, suppressing it slightly, slowing down the process of protein intake. The range of 0.25 – 0.5 Hz led to an exponential growth of the culture. The increase to 0.7 Hz suppressed the growth of cells, again. However, the 10 Hz–modulation stimulated the growth of archaea just in the same manner as in the case of A. fischeri culture. The modulation frequency of 100 Hz inhibited the growth of archaea cells significantly. Based on the experimental data it was identified a similar and at the same time marked difference response of archaea and bacteria on the impact of such environmental factor as the modulated US. It may be due to their differences in the molecular level of the cell wall structure, and also of the protein fusion components and biochemistry. From our point of view, the intensification of the growth of organisms was caused by the increased permeability of the membrane after US exposure, which leads to activation of cellular respiration and substrate consumption.



Jin Kyu Kim1, Jin-Hong Kim1, Vladislav G. Petin2

1Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, University of Science and Technology, Jeongeup, Korea, South
2Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Russia

Section: Biophysics

In the earth, every single biological object lives under the combined influence of ionizing radiation and another environmental factor. In many cases, the simultaneous or sequential actions of multi-factors results in synergism. The present study focused on the general rules of the combined action of two factors. Synergism might be an output from an additional lethal or potentially lethal damage due to the interaction of the two different types of sub-lesions induced by each factor. Such sub-lesions could be regarded as ineffective when each agent acted separately. The additional damage responsible for the synergism might be irreversible. Based on the regularities found, a simple theoretical model was formulated. Our experimental results as well as data published by other researchers were used for model validation. Predictions by the model were in fairly good agreement with available experimental data. And application tests of the model to the combined action of radiation with high temperature, ultrasound, chemical, etc. The synergistic interaction of radiation in a constant dose rate with heat could be shown only within a certain temperature range, in all the target organisms analyzed. Decrease in exposure temperature was required to sustain an optimal ratio of heat-induced damage to radiation-induced damage with any decrease in the dose rate, and vice versa. From the radiological protection point of view, prolonged interaction of ionizing radiation with an environmental factor like heat is of practical importance as it is possible for harmful factors of low intensities to interact synergistically with each other.




Eugeniya Kuzmina, Oleg Vatin, Mikhail Kaplan, Nina Tkachenko

A.Tsyb MRRC, branch of NMRRC, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Obninsk, Russia

Section: Biophysics

Photodynamic therapy, PDT, is a promising cancer treatments. Photosensitizer      accumulated mostly  in the tumor tissue after injection  to  patients’  body. Exposure of tumor to  laser light with wavelength  corresponding  to  the absorption peak produces     photochemical reaction  in the tissue and death of tumor cells and tissues.  Cytokines represent   the  most  important and universal system of humoral factors (regulatory peptides),  carrying out cell-cell communication. They participate in   functioning  innate and adaptive immunity.

         The effect of PDT on the production of cytokines was studied  in   treatment of   39 patients  with tumors of the skin and melanoma. Cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IFN-a, IFN-g, TNF-a) level in the serum was measured before   PDT, and in 1, 3, 7  days after the treatment,  before application of other treatment modalities. The analysis was performed with ELISA reagents of company "Vector-Best".    

        Initial level of  IL-6 was low in the group of cancer patients,   and the level of   IFN-a exceeded the norm, the levels of TNF-a and IL-10 in cancer patients were higher as compared with the control group. Certain regularity in elevation of cytokines level was found.  Cells producing IFN-g  were more sensitive to PDT,  for the whole period of follow up its  level  increased  by 2.5-3 times,  the highest increase was observed on the  3rd and 7th days. Production of  IFN-g and IL-10 increased on average by 2-2.5 times, it increased   linearly from the  1st  through   the  7th day.  Less pronounced dynamics of the  increase was observed for TNF-a and IL-6. It is known that   metabolic activity of IFN-g is extremely diverse. It inhibits the tumor growth through activation of   cytotoxic activity of NK cells, monocytes and macrophages, cytotoxic T cells. Perhaps.  the IFN-g level   in the  serum of cancer patients can be used as favorable  prognostic criteria for   PDT application.   Increase  in the level of such cytokines as IL-6 and  TNF-a  is in line with published data on  mechanisms of  PDT action. The  important factor in the induction of PDT-mediated immune response has been shown to be  damage of cell membranes and blood vessels, the development of an acute inflammatory response and rapid infiltration of leukocytes, bearing receptors of  neutrophils tumor growth areas. These processes are accompanied by intensive production of proinflammatory cytokines. Though   immune response may be less important than other PDT effects in  early stages of the process, it is important for long term control of tumor growth. The presence of an immunological component of PDT allows us to speak not only about the prospects of a combination of PDT and immunotherapy for improving   results of cancer treatment, but also about the  possibility to use  PDT for  correcting immunological reactions.



Ana Setrajcic-Tomić1, Ljubisa Dzambas2, Jovan Setrajcic3

1University of Novi Sad, Medical Faculty, Department of Pharmacy, Novi Sad, Serbia
2University of Novi Sad, Medical Faculty, Department of Dentistry, Novi Sad, Serbia
3University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Novi Sad, Serbia

Section: Biophysics

In this paper we will analyze application of nanomaterials in biomedicine, that is to say we will present the recent accomplishments in basic and clinical nanomedicine. Achieving full potential of nanomedicine may be years of even decades away, however, potential advances in drug delivery, diagnosis, and development of nanotechnology-related drugs start to change the landscape of medicine. Site-specific targeted drug delivery (made possible by the availability of unique delivery platforms, such as dendrimers, nanoparticles and nanoliposomes) and personalized medicine (result of the advance in pharmacogenetics) is just a few concepts on the horizon of research. In this paper, especially, we have analyzed the changes in basic physical properties of spherical-shaped nanoparticles that can be made in several (nano)layers and have, at the same time, multiple applications in medicine.

The main advantage of the theoretical approach is essential knowledge of the mechanisms that allow us to comprehend the experimental conditions that we have to fulfill to be able to get the desired results. The results achieved up to now by our research group in application of the Green’s function method on flat ultrathin films are promising for applications in the frame of core-shell models. This paper presents review of our current achievement in the field of theoretical physics of ultrathin films and possible ways to materialize the same in the field of nanopharmacy.

The subject of the research in this paper includes modeling of nanomaterials in the field of pharmaceutical technology for biomedical application. This includes very precise encapsulated drug delivery, on exactly defined place in the human tissue or organ and disintegration of capsule – drug carrier, so that the medicament can start producing its effect. The goal of multidisciplinary researches with biocompatible molecular nanomaterials is to find the parameters and the possibilities to construct boundary surfaces that will, in interaction with biological environment, create such properties of nanolayers that are convenient for use for layers of drug carrier capsules, biochips and biomarkers. These layers should demonstrate controlled disintegration of structure, better dielectric properties, discrete luminescence and appropriate bioporosity as all these are the requirements of contemporary nanomedicine.



Laura Baliulytė1, Jelena Tamulienė2

1Vilnius University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Vilnius, Lithuania
2Vilnius University, Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius, Lithuania

Section: Biophysics

            Ionizing radiation can be divided into direct and indirect ionization. Direct ionizing radiation  (most of the particulate types, except uncharged particles- neutrons) can directly disrupt the atomic structure of the absorbing medium through which it passes and produces chemical and biological damage of organic molecules. Whereas, electromagnetic radiation, X and gamma rays, and neutrons are indirect ionization. Indirect ionizing radiation gives energy to organic molecules in two-step process: 1) first, it produces secondary (low energy) electrons, 2) second, these secondary electrons can interact with variety biomolecules, including amino acids- the building blocks of proteins. Low energy electrons can induce amino acids fragmentation [1].

            Threonine plays an important role in protein synthesis. This amino acid is precursor of the other amino acid- glycine. Moreover, threonine is necessary to synthesize the mucin protein that is required for maintaining intestinal integrity and function [2]. The goal of our studies was to elucidate the major channels of the threonine mol­ecule fragmentation caused by low energy electrons impact.

            The structure of one of the most stable conformer of threonine (C4H9NO3) was studied using density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method and cc-pVTZ basis set. We used Gaussian 03 Rev  D.0 1 program. The peaks with m=57 a.m.u., m=75 a.m.u., m=74 a.m.u. and m=45 a.m.u. are the most noticeable in the threonine fragments mass-spectrum, which is published in NIST database [3].

            According to our calculation, the production of the m=57 a.m.u., m=75 a.m.u., m=74 a.m.u. and m=45 a.m.u. fragments is the most energetically favorable. Hence, theoretical results coincident with experimental data. We determined that fragment with mass 74 a.m.u. is C3H8NO+/0/-, 57 a.m.u.- C2H3NO+/0/-, 75 a.m.u.- C3H9NO+/0/- and fragment with mass 45 a.m.u. is CO2H+/0/-.


The authors are thankful for the high performance computing resources provided by the Information Technology Open Access Center of Vilnius University.


[1] Ipolyi I., Cicman P., Denifl S., Matejčík V., Mach P., Urban, J., Scheier P., Mark TD and Matejčík Š. Electron impact ionization of alanine: Appearance energies of the ions. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 2006; 252(3):228-233.

[2] Mao X., Zeng X., Qiao S., Wu G., Li D. Specific roles of threonine in intestinal mucosal integrity and barrier function. Front Biosci. 2011;3:1192-1200. 

[3] http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/.



Spomenko Mihajlovic1, Milena Cukavac1, Rudi Čop2, Vlado Antonic3

1Republic Geodetic Authority, Belgrade, Serbia
2Zavod Terra Viva, Sečovlje, Slovenia
3University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, United States

Section: Biophysics

Appearance of the gigantic solar flares, strong sun winds and intense solar storms, makes solar weather (Space & Solar Weather) extremely important. It has strong influence on the climate and meterologic changes. Hourly, daily, monthly and yearly values of index of the solar and geomagnetic activity, appearance of the geomagnetic deviations and geomagnetic storms constitutes Magnetic Weather. All the changes in the magnetic weather can influence processes and dynamic in Earth’s atmosphere, climate and directly and indirectly influence living organisms.

When we discuss space conditions or the space weather, then we notice the parameters of speed and strength of the solar wind, observe the activity of sunspot groups, during the one or more solar cycles. Conditions in space or solar weather often can be determined by activity of CMEs emission (Coronal Mass Ejections), or by eruptions of coronal plasma and energy. Solar Weather is changed as is changed number of registered solar storms, number and speed of magnetic clouds and if they were observed by weakening or intensive magnetic storms. At a distance of one or two astronomic units (AU), as the solar wind became stronger and accelerated, the conditions in the geomagnetic activity were changed. Magnetically disturbed days (d-days) were registered with intensive geomagnetic activity. Changes in the Magnetic Weather were determined by registered magnetospheric and ionospheric disturbances and intensive magnetic storms.

Geo-effective impact of solar and magnetic storms on the dynamics and structure of phenomena and processes in the Earth’s atmosphere, was observed and analyzed in minimum and maximum phase of solar activities during the three solar cycles. In the months when intense solar and geomagnetic storms have been registered, we evaluated changes in meteorological parameters. We analyzed hourly changes in air temperature, interval of sun exposure during quiet days (low solar and geomagnetic activity) and disturbed days, during period before, during and after registered geomagnetic storm. Additionally, we analyzed the geo-effective influence of powerful solar and geomagnetic storms on cosmic satellite stations, GPS technologies, telecommunication systems and electric power network. Finally, we analyzed the effect of solar and geomagnetic disturbances on the biosphere, environment and workspace.



Jasna Vujin, Djordje Jovanovic, Radmila Panajotovic

Institute of Physics Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Biophysics

Solid supported phospholipid-bilayer technology [1] is one of the major avenues for 
development of sensors and nanodevices, especially in the fields of proteomics. Since 
the drug targeting is usually aimed to the cell membrane associated proteins, building 
a well-tailored and sensitive biosensor is of utmost value [2]. 
On the other hand, modern research in material science explores the possibilities of 
materials suitable for building small, sensitive, and robust sensors. 2D-materials, such 
as graphene, MoS2, and WS2, in combination with lipid mono- and multilayers
present an excellent base for building organic field-effect transistors (oFET), whose 
properties are able to meet these requirements [3-5].
In order to accomplish a satisfactory design of such devices, it is necessary to produce 
thin (ideally homogenous, defect-free) films of graphene and other 2D-materials and 
establish their physico-chemical properties, alone and in combination with various 
biomolecular assemblies, such as lipids, cholesterol and biopolymers. In our study we 
have obtained composite thin films of these materials (from a few nm to several tens 
of nm) and explored the elecrostatic properties, structural topography, and chemical 
bonds of DPPC, DPHyPC, sphingomyelin and cholesterol supported on graphene, 
MoS2 and WS2 thin films. 
The AFM, KPFM, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy have been employed for that 
1. Ann E. Oliver, Atul N. Parikh, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1798 (2010) 839–
2. Edward T. Castellana, Paul S. Cremer, Surface Science Reports 61 (2006) 429–444
3. Nengjie Huo, Shengxue Yang, Zhongming Wei, Shu-Shen Li, Jian-Bai Xia and 
Jingbo Li, Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 5209
4. Jitendra N. Tiwari, Varun Vij, K. Christian Kemp, and Kwang S. Kim, ACS Nano
Article ASAP (2015) Open access
5. Ann E. Oliver, Atul N. Parikh, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1798 (2010) 839–




Natalia Kamanina

Vavilov State Optical Institute, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

Section: Biotechnology

In the current paper a unique role of the photorefractive features of the bio- and nano-doped systems has been considered as the indicator of the dynamic and of the conductive characteristics change. The paper presents some innovative view about the tendency to concurrent role of the bio-objects sensitization of the organic matrixes in comparison with the nano-objects doping one. The results have been supported both by the experimental four-wave mixing technique data  as well as by the qualitative model.




Natalia Poyedinok 1, Oksana Mykchaylova2, Anatoly Negriyko3

1Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
2M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
3Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine

Section: Biotechnology

Purpose: The object of this work is the development of scientific bases of of using of low-intensity laser light to enhance the process of biotechnological cultivation of medicinal and edible macromycetes.


Material and methods:

The study involved pure strains of Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus. The helium-neon laser LGN- 215 type with a wavelength of 632.8 nm and argon ion laser  with wavelengths of 488,0 nm were used as the sources of coherent visible light. The laser beam has been expanded by optical system and matched with size of mycelium spreading. The exposure dose was controlled by irradiation time at known measured laser output power and was defined as product of power density and time of irradiation. The exposure time was determined from the condition the same amount of the incident energy on the surface irradiated with various types of lasers: for more powerful argon laser with power density on the surface of substrate in the Petri dish, e.g. 3 mW/cm2 , the defined exposure time is shorter  (230mJ/cm2)/3(mW/cm2) ≈ 77 s  and for He-Ne laser with lower power density on the sample surface, e.g. 0,15 mW/cm2, the exposure time is more long  ≈1530 s.


Results: A new concept of using low-intensity artificial light in biotechnology of cultivation of edible and medicinal mushrooms has been developed. For the first time it has been found that short-term low-intensity irradiation in the visible part of the spectrum has stimulated growth and biosynthetic activity of macromycetes. Such stimulation has a prolonged effect and is capable of being transferred to further ontogenetic stage from the spores to the mycelium. Original and highly environmentally friendly methods of purposefully regulating biosynthetic activity of macromycetes and intensifying the stages of their growing using low-intensity light of different coherence and spectral composition were suggested. It allowed inducing spore germination, shortening the cultivation time, reducing the amount of seed to inoculate substrates, increasing the biomass yield and bioactive components in submerged cultivation as well as the yield of fruit bodies and their quaof lity in solid cultivation.

Conclusions: We have obtained new, science-based theoretical and experimental research results of macromycetes photosensitivity to low-intensity light, which together complement and extend our understanding of the fundamental processes of photoreception macromycetes.



Anna Grunina1, Ludmila Tsvetkova2, Natalia Pronina2, Alexander Recoubratsky2

1Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2All-Russian Research Institute of Freshwater Fisheries, Moscow region, Russia

Section: Biotechnology

Our investigations are devoted to receiving dispermic androgenesis in sturgeon fishes with the use of cryopreserved sperm. This approach is considered as the most promising way to  recover endangered species and populations of sturgeons.
The first success in these investigations was achieved on Stellate sturgeon (Grunina et al., 2006). Further with the use of cryopreserved sperm androgenetic progenies of the Siberian sturgeon and androgenetic hybrids between Siberian and Russian sturgeons were obtained (Grunina et. al., 2011). This work studies the possibility of using this approach on Sterlet and Beluga sturgeons. In the experiment it was used eggs of Sterlet sturgeon and criopreserved (freshly frozen) and native sperm of Sterlet and Beluga sturgeons. For genetic inactivation, eggs were X-irradiated at 220 Gy. Sperm was frozen as described earlier (Grunina et al., 2006) using methanol as a cryoprotectant. When freezing the sperm in the cryopreservation medium added antifreeze glycoproteins in an amount of 5% (vol.). For androgenesis induction, irradiated eggs were fertilized with native or thawed sperm. Heat shock (35оС, 2 min) was applied within 1.4-1.6 t0 (about t0 see Dettlaff et al., 1993, p. 95)  after insemination to promote fusion of male pronuclei.
The use of the procedures of freezing of sperm and heat shock improved in comparison with the previous experiments allowed to receive rather high fertilization rate of irradiated eggs and the survival of embryos after heat shock. The survival of androgenetic embryos obtained from native and cryopreserved sperm was similar. This indicates that the processes of freezing - thawing doesn’t damage significantly the DNA of sperm. Earlier, in experiments on other low-chromosomal sturgeon species, Stellate sturgeon, the survival of the androgenetic offspring received with use of cryopreserved sperm was significantly lower, in comparison with the offspring received with use of native sperm  (Grunina et. al., 2006).
The survival of androgenetic embryos sterlet x beluga at stage 30 (see Dettlaff et. al., 1993) was much lower than that of androgenetic embryos sterlet x sterlet. Obviously, this caused by nucleocytoplasmic incompatibility in a hybrid pair of sterlet - beluga. We have observed similar result before (Grunina et al., 2006). On late stages of embryogenesis the incompatibility was less expressed. 
This research indicates the possibility of obtaining androgenetic progeny from cryopreserved sperm of low-chromosomal sturgeons species – sterlet and beluga, including nucleocytoplasmic androgenetic hybrids.
Dettlaff, T.A., Ginsburg, A.S., and Schmalhausen, O.I., Sturgeon Fishes: Developmental Biology and Aquaculture, Springer, New York, 1993, p 300.
Grunina A.S., Recoubratsky A.V., Tsvetkova L.I., and Barmintsev V.A., Int. J. Refrigeration, 2006, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 379–386.
A. S. Grunina, A. V. Rekubratsky, L. I. Tsvetkova, et al., Russ. J. Dev. Biol., 2011, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 108–119



Tatyana Tugay1, Natalia Poyedinok 2, Andrei Tugay 1, Oksana Mykchaylova 3, Anatoly Negriyko 4

1Institute of Microbiology & Virology National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
2Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
3M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
4Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine

Section: Biotechnology

In this study, the prospects for using of low-intensity laser (0,15 - 3.00 mW/cm2) and ionizing radiation in biotechnology submerged cultivation of macromycete (Inonotus оbliquus) and micromycetes (Cladosporium. cladosporioides and Aspergillus versicolor) to increase the synthesis of melanin were demonstrated. Exposure in the exponential (dose of 85 mGy) and stationary (170 mGy) growth phases strains of C. cladosporioides and A. versicolor increased the synthesis of melanin pigments by 40%. Short-term exposure I. оbliquus sowing mycelium in red and blue ranges of wavelengths of laser light (230 mJ / cm2) increased the synthesis of melanin by 250% and reduces the duration of the cultivation for 4 days. Using of pulsed laser radiation with a wavelength of 632.8 nm and 488 nm provided additional stimulatory effect compared to continuous irradiation at the same wavelengths, which was expressed in increasing the yield of melanin by 67% and 26% respectively.



Petar Petrov, Vesna Markoska, Bojan Mitrovski

MIT University, Faculty of environmental resources management-Skopje, Republic of Macedonia , Skopje, Macedonia

Section: Biotechnology

The basic goal of this research is to determine the influence of foliar fertilization over the  content on dry and mineral matter, vitamin C and total organic acids in broccoli. The experiment was set according to random block-system, on fluvisol soil with high concentration of available forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It was performed during the vegetation period of 2014, on the territory of the village of Negorci, near Gevegelija, with five variants and three repetitions in fifteen rows. Each variant involves 180 plants in total. The experiment involves the following variants: 1. Control (Non-fertilized); 2. Bioflor; 3. Ingrasamant foliar, 4. Humustim and 5. Rhizoactive.  During the vegetation period, total of four treatments have been performed by foliar feeding with 0.4% solution of the above given fertilizers. Following the broccoli harvest average samples are taken for chemical analysis and the results of analysis carried it was concluded that the foliar fertilizing and the high concentration of available forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium have positive effects over chemical composition of the broccoli in all variants. The highest of dry matter  (14,31 %) content , mineral matter (1,40%), vitamin C  (50,02 mg%) and total organic acids (0,48 %)  has been achieved in the variant no. 5 Rhizoactive. 

Key words: dry matter, mineral matter, vitamin C, organic acids, foliar fertilizing, fluvisol soil



Blagica Cekova1, Viktorija Bezhovska2, Ismet Limani1, Filip Jovanovski2

1MIT University, Faculty of ecological resources management, Skopje, Macedonia
2Faculty of technology and metallurgy, University St. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Macedonia

Section: Biotechnology

Microorganisms represent population which cause various reactions and from which the survival of the world depends, by which we are surrounded. Therefore, in the course of the long history, a need arises to be studied by an individual and later from a scientific aspect.

Despite of the considerably useful role, many microorganisms with their actions cause various harmful processes/ and in many occasions fatal consequences. These are pathogenic microorganisms whose toxins cause life – threatening diseases t human and animal lives.

In this paper will be examined dehydrated agricultural products: carrots, peppers, onions and leeks. In these products will be determined the total number of bacteria, amonificacical bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeasts and molds. Studies of represented microorganisms in dehydrated agricultural products will be done 15 days after arrival and 30 days after arrival.

The results will be presented tabular and graphical for the factory "A" and factory "B". In the end will be compared results from the factory "A" factory "B".

Keywords: microorganisms, agricultural products, dehydration, factory



Sanja Petrović, Sasa Savić, Jelena Zvezdanović, Dragan Cvetković, Dejan Marković

Faculty of technology, Leskovac, Serbia

Section: Biotechnology

Investigation of a possible impact of liposomes lipids microenvironment dictated by a chemical composition of the fatty acid branches, on incorporation and spectral behaviour of chlorophyll a, and its derivative, chlorophyllide a inside liposomes, is the aim of this work. The obtained liposomes were small unilamellar liposomes, made of saturated dimirystoil phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipid, and phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid mixture that containing significant fractions of unsaturated fatty acid moieties. Employed techniques were absorption as well as fluorescence polarization spectroscopy. The obtained data for the two incorporated pigments that play a role of molecular sensors, have been compared. In addition, quercetin, a well-known antioxidant, has been employed as the chlorophylls emission quencher, to be able to estimate type of environment sensed by the two pigments for the two liposomes that differ in chemical composition. The results, based primarily on fluorescence polarization data have shown that the emissions as well as the emission quenching were notably affected by a change in the lipids chemical composition. That is an indirect proof of the impact of the liposomes microenvironment on the incorporated pigments spectral behaviour. 



Liubov Zelena, Igor Gretsky, Tatyana Kachur

Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

Section: Biotechnology

Yeast flocculation is the process of cell aggregation into the multicellular structures. The ability of yeast to form flocs is widely used in different industries and biotechnological technologies: winemaking, brewing and production of other alcoholic beverages, in biofuel production and in various environmental applications. Ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic radiation (UHF EMR) can affect metabolic activity of organisms and alter morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic features. The observed effects depend on frequency, power density and exposure duration.

In the present study yeast flocculation peculiarities and flo1 gene expression encoding lectin-like protein involved in flocculation under UHF EMR were evaluated. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were irradiated for 15 min to UHF EMR at wavelength of 12,5 cm (2,45 GHz) and power of 15 W. Flocculation ability of S. cerevisiae was scored in standard conditions, using a microflocculation technique. Gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR using SYBR Green I dye.

Results of yeast flocculation ability analysis showed a very slight increasing of flocculent cells (up to 7%) after UHF EMR treatment for 15 min. On the contrary, gene expression analysis revealed raising of flo1 mRNA abundance in more than 20 times in irradiated yeast cells compare to the control (non-irradiated) ones that may suppose the enlargement of flocculent cells value. Since the expected increasing was not observed it was speculated that other genes responsible for flocculation should be analyzed. Results obtained in our study suggest that UHF EMR can be used for increasing yeast flocculation ability although additional researches are required. 



Sasa Savić, Sanja Petrović, Zivomir Petronijević

Faculty of technology, Leskovac, Serbia

Section: Biotechnology

Immobilization of the enzymes is a process of inclusion of the enzyme molecules isolated in a particular phase, which is separated from the free solution, but it is able to react with the molecules of substrates, effectors, or inhibitors that are present in it. In this paper the process of immobilization of horseradish peroxidase on 12 different hydrophobic carriers was investigated. Benzoyl-cellulose, cinnamoyl cellulose, phenoxyacetyl cellulose, cellulose ester and g-phenyl-butyric acid, as well as an ester of cellulose and thymol of acetic acid among the synthesized carriers were present. Based on the obtained results from investigations of the influence of the synthesized carriers on peroxidase activity, it can be concluded that all carriers the inactivation effect on peroxidase activity were showed. Benzoyl-cellulose carriers were showed the lowest influence on peroxidase activity, whereby the residual peroxidase activity  was about 95%. On the other hand, carriers based on cellulose ester and g-phenyl butyric acid ester cellulose as well as and acetic acid and thymol the highest inactivation effect on peroxidase activity were showed and residual peroxidase activity was less than 10%. After peroxidase immobilization at 25 °C, based on the results of immobilized activity of peroxidase, it can be concluded that the benzoyl cellulose carriers were the best. The results show a good agreement with the results obtained during the investigation of influence of different carriers on horseradish peroxidase activity, because the benzoyl cellulose carriers the slightest inhibition (and / or denaturacioni) effect on peroxidase activity were showed.



Blagica Cekova1, Filip Jovanovski2, Vikrorija Bezhovska2

1MIT University, Faculty of ecological resources management, Skopje, Macedonia, Skopje, Macedonia
2Faculty of technology and metallurgy, University St. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Macedonia, Skopje, Macedonia

Section: Biotechnology

The fruit and the vegetables today and in the past was used throughout the year, it is normal because of their preservation which is enabled to all of us to use and consumption them in winter.

Technological microbiology aim is through the process of canning fruits and vegetables, after harvest or completed their processing to enable continued durability of the product and to preserve their stability in microbiology and in chemical terms.

The products (canned, ajvar, lutenica, beets) are taken and used by various processing factories in Macedonia, which are produced according to standards and regulations stipulated in Rules for quality products paper fruits and vegetables.

Thought this research we also get the information weather in big sales markets improper storage of these food products result changes in microbiological compassion of the tested products and whether these changes make the products unusable for the consumers.


Keywords: microorganisms, canned ajvar, lutenica, beets.











Valentyna Katsan, Larysa Yurkevych, Anatoly Potopalsky

Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics of Natl. Acad. Sci. of Ukraine , Kyiv, Ukraine

Section: Biotechnology

The search of the modern preparations to procure the high level of plants productivity in the changed climate and anthropogenic impact on the environment is the principal problem of today, and such preparations may be Izatison, designed in our laboratory (Iz; N-methylisatin β-thiosemicarbazone in the solvents composition – DMSO and PEG 400), and the nanosilver SS1000 preparation (S), elaborated in Institute for Super­hard materials V.M. Bakul NAS of Ukraine and was kindly given to us.


The oat seeds were treated by the water suspensions of the preparations and the solvents DMSO (D) and PEG 400 (P). The plants were grown in field; the grain productivity (the primary panicle length, L; the grains number in the primary panicle, G; the grains weight from the primary panicle, W; the weight of 1000 grains, W1000) was analyzed after gather in the harvest over 3 generations after treatment. Chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids content determined at the onset of panicles formation over 2 generations after treatment.


The positive effect of Iz and S on the panicles growth and development was observed for the plants obtained from the treated seeds: W increased, when Iz and S were used, caused by the increase of G, and the most stimulating effect was revealed for Iz (on 32,3%, P<0,001). In the second generation the increment of G was found for P, persisted in the variants Iz and S; W – in the variants Iz and P+S, and it is found the increase of W1000 in the majority variants of experiment. The positive changes of oat productivity were persisting in the third generation also, and the most stable maintenance of L, G and W increase over 3 generations was observed in generations of the plants, those have been treated by Iz. It is found the increase of chl a/b ratio conditioned by Iz, S+D+P and S+D in 1 generation. In 2 generation the negative influence of D, P and D+Р on chl a and b content was revealed; the increase of chl a portion depended on D+Р, S+P, S+D+P; the increase of chl b portion – on Iz and P.


It is likely, that the character of the changes, observed in the several next generations after treatment of the oat seeds by Izatison, its constituents and by nanosilver, may be conditioned by the complexes of the signaling molecules to be the components of the studied preparations, the inducers of the broad spectrum of adaptation signaling pathways and possible interplays between them. 

Keywords: Izatison, nanosilver, grain productivity, adaptability, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, chlorophyll a/b ratio



Emilia Domina, Elena Pylypchuk

R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

Section: Cancer Research

Due to existing environmental situation in post-Chernobyl period, probabilistic development of carcinogenic effects of low dose ionizing irradiation and oncogenic hazard of increased level of chromosome changes in cell population/ Absent today a holistic view of ways to prevent cancer radiation genesis and does not formulated the concept of prevention. Due to existing environmental situation in post-Chernobyl period, probabilistic development of carcinogenic effects of low dose ionizing irradiation and oncogenic hazard of increased level of chromosome changes in cell population. Thus goal was develop a strategy for the primary prevention of radiogenic cancer based on cytogenetic studies.The first key stage of the strategy of primary prevention of radiogenic cancer is the estimation of human individual radiosensitivity. The second key stage is calculation of the influence of co-mutagens. the Third key stage is the use of non-toxic effective radioprotective. We shown that ,cо-mutagens potentiate the damaging effect of low doses of IR at a high concentration. From here people diagnosed increased individual radiosensitivity and working in the scope of the ionizing irradiation necessary to monitor prescription of medicines with co-mutagenic activity.

Developed preventive measures advisable to carry out in the selection of cadres to work in the field of ionizing radiation, including nuclear workers, medical staff (radiation oncologists, radiologists), as well as among the priority groups of people living in areas contaminated with radionuclides.



Ludmiła Grzybowska-Szatkowska1, Brygida Ślaska2, Jolanta Rzymowska3

1Oncology Department. Medical Uniwesrity in Lublin, Lublin, Poland
2Department of Biological Bases of Animal Production, University of Life Sciences in Lublin,, Lublin, Poland
3Department of Biology and Genetics, Medical University in Lublin, Lublin, Poland

Section: Cancer Research

The interest in the mitochondrial involvement in carcinogenesis dates back to the 20s – 30s of the twentieth century. In the recent years, more and more research points to their role in both somatic mutations and polymorphisms resulting in mtDNA. It is probable that mutations in the, i.e. conserved regions in the replication promoters of transcription or the transcription factor binding sites may adversely affect the amount of mitochondrial transcript. This study tries to analyze mutations and polymorphisms in selected genes of mtDNA (mt- RNA, ND1, ND2, ND3, ND6, RNR1, COI, COII, COIII, CYT B, ATP 6 and 8) and assess the impact of missense mutations on the biochemical properties, structure and function of proteins. During the study were identified 26 missens  mutations . In the COI were found a stop codon mutation that causes a shift of the reading frames, and the formation of a protein structurally different from the cytochrome oxidase subunit. In eight cases of the missense mutations the Pds (Pdeleterious -Probability of Functional Impairment) value was above 0.5, which shows the effect of these mutations on protein function. The mutations detected in mt- tRNA and rRNA concern the items in which there are Watson- Crick bonds and which may affect the secondary structure both of mt- tRNA and 12s-rRNA. In the studied subunits were detected mutations occurring in patients with mitochondrial diseases  as well as those with type II diabetes.Mutations in the genes for mitochondrial proteins cause a wide range of symptoms. Many factors may influence the clinical manifestation of changes in mt- DNA.



Sergey Milyukov1, Georgy Panshin2, Natalia Kharchenko1, Sergey Golub2, Gadzhimurad Zapirov1, Mikhail Kunda1, Timur Izmailov2

1Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia
2Russian Scientific Center of Roentgenoradiology of Russia, Moscow, Russia

Section: Cancer Research

Objectives: Analysis of the most significant predictors on disease-free survival in patients with low grade cerebral gliomas (LGG).

Materials and methods: 42 patients with LGG. Morphologically proven diagnosis in 38 patients(90,5%), roentgenological diagnosis -4(9,5%). Grade1 -2(4.8%), grade2 -36(85.7%). Astrocytoma -25(59.5%), oligoastrocytoma -8(19.1%), oligodendroglioma -5(11.9%). Supratentorial tumor - 34(81%), subtentorial -8(19%). Women -22(52.4%), men -20(47.6%). Mean age 37.86 +/-13.06. Mean Karnofsky Performance Status(KPS) -79,5% +/-9,094. Total or subtotal resection -29(69%), STB -9(21.5%). Chemoradiotherapy -30(71.4 %), radiotherapy -25(59.5%), chemotherapy -17(40.5%).

Results: We analyzed the cumulative disease-free survival using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Significant difference in disease-free survival according to Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) hasn`t been received (p = 0.554). 20.0% of patients with acute cerebral circulatory disorder disease manifestation and 29.7% of patients in whom the disease manifested with the gradual development of neurological symptoms, lived more than 3 years without progression (p = 0.015). 10% of patients with supratentorial localization and tumor crossing midline and 62.5% of patients with supratentorial localization without midline crossing – lived more than 3 years progression free (p = 0.002).

Conclusion: We are looking forward to evaluate other predictors on disease-free survival, quality of life and treatment effectiveness, thus improving existing standards of LGG treatment.

Keywords: low-grade gliomas (LGG) (Grade II), predictors on disease-free survival.



elham raeisi1, Seyed Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri2, Negar Rahmatpour2, Azin Bandi2, Sedigheh Amini Kafi-Abadi3, Lluis M Mir4

1Dept of Medical Physics and Radiology Technology, Paramedical Faculty, Shahrekord University Of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
2Devision of Radiation Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
3Department of Immunohematology, Research Center of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO), Tehran, Iran
4CNRS, UMR 8203, Institute Gustave Roussy, 114 rue E. Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif cedex, Villejuif, France

Section: Cancer Research

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of Electrochemotherapy (ECT) and repeated Electrochemotherapy (ECT) with cisplatin. Tumor treatment was evaluated on large invasive ductal carcinoma tumors (IDC) in mice. Spontaneous mouse mammary tumor, i.e., an invasive ductal carcinoma, was transplanted by implanting a 4 mm3 into the flank of anesthetized mice. Tumors of an average volume of 630 mm3 were treated with cisplatin, electric pulses, as well as in combination, ECT and repeated ECT. Two trains of 4 pulses of 1000 V/cm and 100 µs and repetition frequency 1 Hz were applied. Therapeutic effectiveness was evaluated by tumor growth delay, tumor-doubling time and inhibation ratio. ECT was more effective than the indivitual treatments with cisplatin or the electric pulses alone. When ECT was repeated 15th day after 1st treatment, it was more effective. At repeated ECT, inhibation ratio was 79% and 2 animals out of 8 were in complete response. The repeated ECT was more effective than the ECT. The results of our study show that ECT increases the therapeutic effectiveness of cisplatin on invasive ductal carcinoma tumors. Repeated ECT is useful treatment for treating of large tumors.




Albert Berman, Galina Morozevich, Nadezda Kozlova, Nina Gevorkian

Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, Moscow, Russia

Section: Cancer Research

SKMel-147 human melanoma line was used as a model for exploring the integrin-dependent signal pathways underlying the protection of tumor cells from anchorage-dependent apoptosis, anoikis. Silencing of alpha-2/beta-1 integrin expression significantly promoted anoikis of  melanoma cells which was accompanied by an up-regulation of the active forms of kinases Akt and mTOR. We have previously shown that depletion of alpa-2/beta-1 in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells also stimulated  their anoikis, but, unlike SKMel-147, the activity of Akt was not changed upon the alpha-2/beta-1 down-regulation, whereas the activity of Erk1/2 was dramatically increased. Pharmacological inhibition of Erk1/2 in MCF-7 had a minor effect on anoikis of control cells, while reduced that of cells with down-regulated alpha-2/beta-1 to the level of control cells. In contrast, in SKMel-147 cells, inhibition of Erk1/2  had a negligible effect on anoikis of  either control or alpha-2/beta-1-depleted cells while inhibition of the Akt in the integrin-depleted cells reduced their anoikis to the levels of controls. The data demonstrate the high variability and cell type dependence of signal pathways  using by integrins in controlling tumor cells  resistance to anoikis.





Galina Morozevich1, Nadezda Kozlova1, Natalia Ushakova1, Nina Gevorkian1, Olga Susova2, Albert Berman1

1Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, Moscow, Russia
2Moscow Oncological Center, Moscow, Russia

Section: Cancer Research

Integrin expression and tumor cell resistance to antitumor drugs were investigated in two human breast carcinoma lines highly differing in metastatic and invasive activities. In MCF-7 line with low invasive activity, the predominant integrin is alpha-2/beta-1 expression of which was detected in 90% of cells. The line MDA-MB-231 with high invasive ability did not differ from MCF-7 cells by the expression  of alpha-2/beta-1, but, unlike of them, this line is active in expression of alpha-3/beta-1, alpha-5/beta-1 and alpha-v/beta-1. Analysis of cell viability in a medium containing doxorubicin showed that both lines are highly sensitive to the drug. But resistance of MDA-MB-231 cells is about 4 times higher than that of MCF-7 cells. Blocking the expression of  integrin alpha-2/beta-1 resulted in a slight increase in the resistance of both cell lines to doxorubicin. Overexpression of integrin alpha5/beta-1 in MCF-7 cells resulted in a sibstantial enhancement of their resistance to doxorubicin





Eugeniya Kuzmina, Tatiana Mushkarina, Tatiana Konstantinova

A.Tsyb MRRC, branch of NMRRC, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Obninsk, Russia

Section: Cancer Research

At present the level of minimal residual disease (MRD)  is considered as independent predictor of response to  treatment and efficiency of therapy for B-cell CLL.   The purpose of the study is to evaluate  the potential of the technology for minimal residual disease quantification  for prediction of response to treatment of B-cell CLL and non-Hodgkin lymphomas with defeat bone marrow and/or blood.   Immunophenotype of tumor cells and quantity of the clonal tumor cells  in the bone marrow and peripheral blood in CLL and NHL were identified.  Monitoring of MRD level was carried out at various stages of therapy.  Eight patients with   lymphoproliferative diseases, B-cell CLL, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mature cells lymphoma,  lymphoma of  the spleen, mantle cell lymphoma, were taken in the study.  Proliferating clones was detected by 6-color flow cytometry using   the cytometer FACS Canto II, BD. The following  markers   CD45, CD23, CD38, CD43, SD79b, coexpression of CD5 + CD19 + and CD5 + CD20 +, the prevalence of expression of the light chains of the membrane surface immunoglobulin Kappa and Lambda types were used. MRD level was evaluated in accordance with recommendations of the  international standardized approach [Rawstron et al. 2007]. MRD was identified with the following markers: CD81+, CD43+, CD5+, CD19+, CD38+, CD20+, CD45+, Kappa+, Lambda+. The  MRD level of 0.01% is considered as the limit  level of MRD detection. The number of aberrant lymphocytes per 1 000 000 cells was calculated.    Bone marrow aspirate and samples of peripheral blood  were analyzed at various stages of (immuno) chemoradiation therapy: after 6 cycles of R-CHOP, in 3 and 6 months after chemoradiotherapy.   25 blood and bone marrow samples including  8 – clones taken before therapy and 17 samples of  MRD of  quantified level in bone marrow    (10) and peripheral blood  (7)    were analyzed.

        Initial volume of proliferation of aberrant  mature B cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood was 64%, the range of variation was from 33 to 92%.

Though the count of aberrant lymphocytes    in the bone marrow and peripheral blood dropped  drastically by about 800 times  after the treatment,   MRD was found almost in all patients  upon completion of the treatment.  The average level was 0.08% in the blood and 0.34% in the bone marrow. Tumor  cells clone  was not detected in the blood, but it was preserving   in the bone marrow of  one patient with lymphoma of the spleen after 6 cycles of R-CHOP.  These results are consistent with published data   indicating that to stop the clonal proliferation in the  bone marrow is more difficult that in the  blood. It should be stressed that  the  MRD  level continued to decrease,  in 6 months  after the treatment completion it was lower than in  3 months.

    According to published data  the complete eradication of the disease and  immunophenotypic  remission of  CLL can be achieved in the absence of MRD, it means that the level of aberrant lymphocytes must not exceed 0.01%. Clinical remission was considered to be less stable and runs the risk of recurrence if the number of detected aberrant cells is higher. Thus, the results demonstrate  the perspectiveness of  MRD application for predicting    response to drug  and   radiation therapy of  CLL /NHL.



Irina Shtangeeva1, Maria Ângela de B. C. Menezes2

1St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg, Russia
2Nuclear Technology Development Centre/Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Section: Environmental Chemistry

Bromine (Br) is one of the most abundant and widespread of the recognized trace elements in the biosphere. It can be found in many organic and inorganic substances. Humans started the introduction of organic compounds of Br into the environment many years ago. These compounds are not natural and can cause serious consequences to human health and the environment. The Br atom was a definitive constituent of a number of industrial chemicals that were produced in large quantities and performed useful functions in society until unexpected environmental impacts emerged and international actions were taken to control their effects. During the last decades different compounds of Br have been introduced increasingly into the environment.


The metabolism of Br in higher plants remains poorly investigated. This contrasts with a lot of information on accumulation of other halogens such as iodine and chlorine in the plants gathered by now. The importance of Br in the biogeochemical cycles and its biological significance is still not clearly understood. There are also questions on its quantitative requirements for different plant species. Until present time, however, few studies dealing with these problems have been conducted, and even the concentrations of Br in terrestrial plants are poorly documented. Now our knowledge of biological functions of this trace element is still limited. Probably, one of the reasons is insufficient level of quality of the analytical techniques presently used for determination of Br in the biological materials, perhaps, except only neutron activation analysis. This analytical technique gives an excellent possibility to determine Br in various environmental samples with high sensitivity and accuracy without any pretreatment of samples, thus reducing the possibility of analytical errors at the stage of elemental analysis.


This work is addressed to a deeper understanding of Br pathways in plants and evaluation of the factors important for Br plant accumulation up to high levels. The main objectives of the research are (1) to compare uptake of Br by several plant species which can differ in the ability to accumulate Br, (2) to assess the variations both in the uptake of Br by the plants and impact of different Br compounds on the plant nutrition and biomasses of the plants, (3) to study dependence of plant Br accumulation on the concentration of Br in the growth medium, (4) to estimate relations between Br and other halogens, e.g. Cl and I in plants and soil, and (5) to detect the effects of Br on concentration of essential plant nutrients.





Gye-Nam Kim, Seung-Soo Kim, Jong-Won Choi

Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejon, Korea, South

Section: Environmental Chemistry

A large number of nuclear facility sites have been contaminated by a leakage of radioactive waste-solution during a long-term operation of nuclear facilities. Indoor electrokinetic decontamination equipment for treatment of 1.2 tons of the contaminated soil per batch was manufactured to remove uranium from soil using high removal efficiency during a short time. For a reduction of waste electrolyte volume and metal oxide volume, the reuse period of waste electrolyte in the electrokinetic decontamination experiment and the method of a reduction of metal oxide volume in the cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments using the manufactured electrokinetic equipment. In addition, the time required to reach below the clearance concentration level for self-disposal was estimated through experiments using the manufactured electrokinetic equipment. When the pH of waste electrolyte increased more than 5.47, the percentage of metal oxide volume generated in a cathode chamber increased more than 90%. Namely, it was found that the optimum pH of the waste electrolyte in a cathode chamber for a reduction of volume of metal oxides was below 2.35 at 25℃. When the initial uranium concentrations in soils were 7.0 - 27.0 Bq/g, the times required for uranium concentrations in soils to reach below 5.0 Bq/g, the reuse periods of the waste electrolyte were 5 – 25 days with waste electrolyte. Finally, it was found that when the initial uranium concentrations in soils were 7.0 - 20.0 Bq/g, the times required for uranium concentrations in soils to reach below the clearance concentration level (1.0 Bq/g) for self-disposal were 25 - 40 days with waste electrolyte and reclaimed electrolyte.



Lydia Bondareva1, Andrey Kuzmin2

1Federal Scientific Center of Hygiene named after F.F. Erisman, Mitischy, Russia
2Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Section: Environmental Chemistry

The toxic effect of oil on a gramineae species - rye S. cereale L. has been studied. When introducing oil into soils it has been found that the soil fraction with the particle size being 0,05 - 0,45 mm absorbs the oil least of all. Here, the distribution of the estimated polyaromatic hydrocarbons is directly dependent on the portion of the size fractions of the soils under study.  During the experiments the oil loss from the soils amounts to ~17 %, which is due to the possible oil decomposition by the plant roots and partial evaporation of oil from the soil surface. With the oil content being 9 %, the young rye shoots are suppressed, but the biomass is quite viable, which is evidenced by IR spectroscopy and morphological indicators. However, chromosome disturbances have been observed as a result of cytogenetic studies of the root system of rye, which are associated, among other things, with the effect of the soil particle agglutination around the root system. This may disturb the chloroplast motion in the cells, giving rise to anomalies in cell structures. Thus, the conducted experiments can indicate that rye can be applied for the photoremediation of soils polluted by oil spills.



Natalia Masalitina, Alexander Ogurtsov

National Technical University , Kharkov, Ukraine

Section: Environmental Chemistry

There is an increasing commercial interest in finding alternative ways to produce phenol that overcome the disadvantages of the current cumene process used to synthesize phenol. The drivers for the change are both economic and environmental. A direct oxidation route for producing phenol from benzene is based on using N2O as an oxidizing agent in the gas phase in the presence of modified Fe-ZSM5 zeolite. Thus, direct phenol synthesis from benzene in a one-step reaction with high benzene conversion and high phenol selectivity is most desirable from viewpoints of environment-friendly green process and economical efficiency. Selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia (NH3) with air at low temperatures is an efficient method to produce N2O as oxidizing agent for organic synthesis. This process has two important parameters: the selectivity and the application temperature. To rationally develop a process for NH3 oxidation to N2O over catalysts, the reaction mechanism must be clarified. While several studies have examined the low temperature oxidation process, the mechanism of NH3 oxidation and N2O formation is still uncertain. Generally use an imide (NH) mechanism in which the first step yields NH, and then the NH reacts with atomic oxygen (O) to form nitroxyl (HNO) and further conversion to N2 or nitrous oxide (N2O), or NH could even react with molecular O2 to produce nitric oxide (NO).

In the present paper the influence of catalyst composition and some operating variables were evaluated by IR-spectroscopy in terms of N2O formation, using Mn/Bi/Cu/Ce-oxide catalysts. The IR spectra of ammonia adsorbed on the catalysts show the bands at 1594 and 1165 cm–1, which attributed to sigmaas and sigmas model of NH3 coordinated to Lewis acid sites. Another two bands at 1674 and 1445 cm–1 are attributed to sigmas NH4+ and sigmaas NH4+ resulting from ammonia coordinated to Brønsted acid sites. It is indicated by the increase in intensity of band at 1165 cm–1 that more Lewis acid sites are generated on Mn/Bi/Cu/Ce-oxide by introduction of Cex+ which can also serve as Lewis acid sites. Comparison of IR spectra from catalyst treated with 1000 ppm NO, 1000 ppm NO2, and 1000 ppm NO + 2% O2 shows the five bands at 1610, 1550, 1466, 1291, and 1030 cm–1. The bands at 1550, 1291, and 1030 cm–1 can be assigned to bidentate nitrate; the band at 1466 cm–1 can be attributed to the monodentate nitrite. The mechanism proposed for N2O generation at low temperature is based on the formation of surface Ce-ON species which may be produced by the partial oxidation of dissociatively adsorbed ammonia species with NO + O2 (eventually NO2). When these active sites are in close proximity they can interact to form an N2O molecule. 



Jeton Halili1, Altin Mele2, Tahir Arbneshi1, Adelina Halili1, Valbonë Mehmeti1, Kaltrina Jusufi1, Avni Berisha1

1UP, Department of Chemistry, Pristina, Kosovo
2University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

Section: Environmental Chemistry

Heavy metal ions in liquid samples apart classical methods of extraction, they can be also efficiently and environmentally friendly extracted by the use of supercritical CO2 , containing a suitable complexing agent - ligand. This study represents the experimental data for the extraction of three heavy metals (Cu, Zn and Cd) from aqueous samples in the presence of Dithizone as a ligand. The extractions by supercritical CO2 were accomplished at p=120 bars with t=50°C through the use of the dynamic technique. After the CO2 addition on the aqueous solution containing corresponding heavy metal ions, the pressure and temperature were set and extraction was performed in three different time periods: 30, 60 and 120 min (t=const. , p=const. with a CO2 flow rate of 2 mL min−1. Once the extraction was stopped, the CO2 was released slowly through a restrictor. Methanol was used as a modifier (v/v) 10% and the pH value was set 10. After the accomplishment of the extraction process, the left over aqueous solution in the extractor was analyzed for its metal content by the use of the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The overall performance of the use of the dithizone as a ligand in all three cases of heavy metal ions enhanced greatly the extraction efficiency of these ligand/metal species. 



Valbonë Mehmeti1, Kurt Kalcher2, Fetah Podvorica1, Avni Berisha1

1University of Prishtina, FNMS, Department of Chemistry, Prishtinë, Kosovo
2University of Graz, Department of Chemistry, Graz, Austria

Section: Environmental Chemistry

Mild steel is widely useful constructional material in many different industries mainly due to its excellent mechanical properties and it’s low cost. Main problem with this material and generally with other materials it’s their susceptibility toward the corrosion, thus their surface must be protected from this process.  The metal protection apart the use of classic inhibitors [1,2] can be also achieved through the use of surface modification strategies by chemical or electrochemical methods such SAM’s (Self Assembled Monolayers) formed from phosphonic acids [3,4] or electrochemical reduction of aryldiazonium salts on metals [5], with the exception of 2,6-dimethylbenzene diazonium salt [6]. In this study two different mercapto compounds: a) 4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and b) 2-mercaptonicotinic acid were used as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 0.1M sulfuric acid solution using potentiodynamic measurements. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency  (IE) of these compound in general improved by the increase of their concentration in the corrosion media.  The IE of the both studied compounds exhibited satisfied results toward the protection of mild steel from corrosion in this acid media.

[1] P. B. Raja, M. G. Sethuraman, Natural products as corrosion inhibitor for metals in corrosive media, Mater. Lett., 62, 113–116 (2008).

[2] A. Berisha, F. I. Podvorica, V. Mehmeti, F. Syla, D.k Vataj, Theoretical and experimental studies of the corrosion behavior of some thiazole derivatives toward mild steel in sulfuric acid media,  Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 34, 2, 287–294 (2015).

[3] G. Gunasekaran, R.Natarajan, V. S. Muralidharan, N. Palaniswamy, B. V. App Rao, Inhibition by phosphonic acids, Anti-Corros. Methods Mater., 44, 248–259 (1997)

[4] J. G. Van Alsten, Self-Assembled Monolayers on Engineering Metals: Structure, Derivatization, and Utility, Langmuir, 15, 7605–7614 (1999).

[5] A. Berisha, C. Combellas, F. Kanoufi, J. Pinson, S. Ustaze, F. I. Podvorica, Physisorption vs grafting of aryldiazonium salts onto iron: A corrosion study., Electrochim.Acta, 56, 10672–10676 (2011).

[6] A. Berisha, C. Combellas, F. Kanoufi, J. Pinson, S. Ustaze, F. I. Podvorica, Indirect Grafting of Acetonitrile Derived Films on Metallic Substrates, Chem. Mater. 22, 2962–2969 (2010).



Marija Mihajlović, Jelena Petrović, Mirjana Stojanović, Milan Kragović, Jelena Milojković, Marija Petrović, Tatjana Šoštarić

Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Environmental Chemistry

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has been proven as one of the simplest and most efficient technologies to produce a variety of carbon-based hydrochars with various applications. Like other types of biochars, hydrochar is porous and has reactive, functionalized/aromatic surfaces. Those properties make hydrochar a potential low-cost adsorbent for water purification or soil remediation. In order to increase its ability to remove heavy metal contaminants from aqueous solution, chemical modification/activation of hydrochar surface using KOH has been suggested. Presented FTIR spectroscopy analysis of hydrochars obtained from grape pomace and miscanthus showed that KOH modification increases the oxygen-containing functional groups, particularly hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, on hydrochar surfaces. As a result, activated hydrochars may demonstrate enhanced sorption efficiency.  




Sanja Bijelovic1, Natasa Dragic1, Emil Zivadinovic2, Jovana Nikolov3, Natasa Todorovic3

1University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine, Hajduk Veljkova 3, Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia; Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina, Futoška 121, Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia , Novi Sad, Serbia
2Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina, Futoška 121, Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia , Novi Sad, Serbia
3University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 4, Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia, Novi Sad, Serbia

Section: Environmental Chemistry

Aim: To determinate gross alpha and beta particle activities in public wells in the territory of the AP of Vojvodina (APV).

Method: The water samples were taken true the period 2012-2015 in 81 settlements (30 municipalities) of APV. Sampling was done according to SRPS EN ISO 5667-1:2008, SRPS EN ISO 5667-3:2007, SRPS ISO 5667-5:2008 and Ordinance on the limits of radionuclide in drinking water, food, animal feed, drugs, general use items, building materials and other goods that are placed on the market, Official Gazette of RS, No. 97/13. There were collected 259 samples of drinking water.

Simultaneous measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activities by liquid scintillation counting technique using Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counter (LSC) equipped with Pulse Shape Analyzer (PSA) is described. Water samples were prepared for measurements according to the ASTM D 7283-06 Standard Test Method.  Liquid Scintillation vials 20 ml of low-potassium glass and scintillation cocktail (Optiphase Hi Safe 3) were used in the measurements.

Descriptive analyses (average, minimal and maximal values and standard deviation) were used for interpretation of the results, as well as frequency distribution. If the number of valid data was under the 95%, the average value was established by determination. 


Average gross alpha particle activities in samples of drinking water were 0.10±0.08 Bq/l, minimal ˂0.005 Bq/l and maximal 0.47 Bq/l (found in municipality Senta). The highest average values of gross alpha particle activities were found in municipality Pećinci (0.36 Bq/l), Senta (0.31 Bq/l), Ruma (0.28 Bq/l), Stara Pazova (0.26 Bq/l), Šid (0.20 Bq/l), Inđija (0.19 Bq/l) and Irig (0.15 Bq/l).

Average gross beta particle activities in samples of drinking water were 0.26±0.2 Bq/l, minimal ˂0.03 Bq/l and maximal 0.94 Bq/l (found in municipality Sid).

In 5 (1.93%) controlled samples of drinking water, mainly in municipalities Šid, Pećinci and Stara Pazova, the gross alpha and beta particle activities were above the limit value defined in National Ordinance, so there were necessary to determinate the activity of radionuclide radium (226Ra), thorium (232Th) and cesium (137Cs). The average concentration of 226Ra and 232Th was 0.16 Bq/l and 0.08 Bq/l, respectively, while the concentration of 137Cs in all analyzed samples was in range ˂0.07 - ˂0.12 Bq/l.

Conclusion: The average gross alpha and beta particle activities in public wells in the territory of APV is in accordance with National Ordinance. In the single samples where gross alpha and beta particle activities were above the limit values, the activity of radionuclide radium and thorium were not above the prescribed limit values. 



Lauresha Këpuska, Valbonë Mehmeti, Mentor Ismaili, Avni Berisha, Veprim Thaçi, Kaltrina Jusufi

UP, Department of Chemistry, Prishtinë, Kosovo

Section: Environmental Chemistry

Adsorption represents an industrial separation technique for the purification of effluent media. This is a mass transfer operation done by a solid material that can selectively remove dissolved components from an aqueous/organic solution by attracting the dissolved solute to its surface. Adsorption finds application in textile, oil, leather, dyeing, food, cosmetics, plastics and paper industries. Among other material used for the adsorption, clay minerals are widely used for this process due to their organic molecule adsorption–desorption properties. Clay refers to a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained minerals, which is/might be plastic in nature at appropriate water contents and will harden when dried or fired.  In this study the Goshica’s clay (Viti, Kosovo) was tested for the use as an adsorption material for the nitrogen molecule. The clay was used directly or after acid activation (by 10, 20 and 30 % sulfuric acid). Prior to this study, the clay material underwent physico-chemical characterization. The results show that the differential dispersion of pores for the untreated clay are in the range of 1 to 3 nm and the pore size increases further with the acid treatment. The isotherms obtained through the measurement of the nitrogen adsorption by the clays in desorption exhibit a type H3 hysteresis.



Lauresha Këpuska, Valbonë Mehmeti, Mentor Ismaili, Avni Berisha, Kaltrina Jusufi, Veprim Thaçi

UP, Department of Chemistry, Prishtinë, Kosovo

Section: Environmental Chemistry

The removal of pigment and other trace ingredients by adsorption process (bleaching) is one of the most significant steps in the vegetable oil refining (it removes the chlorophyll, carotenes and other pigments as impurities). This process makes the oil more pleasing and suitable for use. Activated clay has been extensively employed as an adsorbent materials. Studying the isotherms and kinetics of the bleaching activities of clays with such oil is a very critical and essential step for the development of the bleaching process. In our study we used natural and acid activated clay for the bleaching of oil. The used clay was characterized by using adsorption isotherms. The adsorption energy for this type of clay was estimated in the range of 8.62 – 11.10 kJ/mol which is characteristic for physisorption.  The cation-exchange capacity of the clay was 35.5 mmol/100g clay. The performance of the clay toward the oil bleaching was very high, this performance increased further by activating the clay.



Valbonë Mehmeti1, Kurt Kalcher2, Avni Berisha1, Fetah Podvorica1

1University of Prishtina, FNMS, Department of Chemistry, Prishtinë, Kosovo
2University of Graz, Department of Chemistry, Graz, Austria

Section: Environmental Chemistry

The copper alloys and the metal itself are important materials from which are made important industrial equipment such as: cooling systems, desalination plants, heat exchangers, etc. This extensive use of such materials is related due to their important and much desired proprieties: strength, electrical/thermal conductivity, etc. Even if these material are more resistant than the mild steel toward the corrosion phenomena, they are still susceptible to it, thus they need to be protected. In this study six different mono and polyhydroxy aromatic derivatives: A. sinapic acid, B. syringic acid, C. 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic acid, D. methyl-4-formylbenzoate, E. methyl-3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate and F. 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid were tested for their corrosion behavior toward the copper. DTF quantum calculations were performed to determine: E(HOMO), E(LUMO), energy gap (∆E), dipole moment, etc. for each used molecule and these parameter were tested for correlation with experimentally evaluated corrosion behavior of these molecules toward the copper metal.



Valbonë Mehmeti1, Kurt Kalcher2, Avni Berisha1, Fetah Podvorica1

1University of Prishtina, FNMS, Department of Chemistry, Prishtinë, Kosovo
2University of Graz, Department of Chemistry, Graz, Austria

Section: Environmental Chemistry

Electrochemical generation of aryl radical through the electroreduction of aryl diazonium salts enables the covalent modification of vast number of materials [1,2]. The grafted organic moieties may contain a number of different functional groups, which can give rise to functionalized surfaces with specific properties. These formed layers as they are covalently bonded, they are very stable [1]. In our study the modification of mild steel was achieved through the electroreduction of 4-bromobenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile solution containing 0.1M tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate. The grafting is performed by imposing a negative potential to the mild steel electrode. TThe efficiency of these strongly grafted layers onto mild steel surface to protect its surface against corrosion is tested by potentiodynamic measurements. Polarization curves indicate the decrease of corrosion rate of modified iron electrodes immersed in aqueous acid medium. 


[1] Jean Pinson, Fetah Podvorica, Attachment of organic layers to conductive or semiconductive surfaces by reduction of diazonium salts, Chem Soc Rev. 2005 May;34(5):429-39

 [2] Electroanalytical Chemistry A Series of Advances: Volume 26. Chapter 3. Electrode Surface Modification Using Diazonium Salts, Avni Berisha, Mohamed M. Chehimi, Jean Pinson, Fetah I. Podvorica (Edited by Allen J. Bard and Cynthia G. Zoski) CRC Press 2015, ISBN: 978-1-4987-3377-9



Julijana Velevska1, Nace Stojanov1, Margareta Pecovska-Gjorgjevich1, Metodija Najdoski2

1Institute of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Saints Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia
2Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Saints Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia

Section: Environmental Chemistry


In this work electrochromic Prussian blue (PB) and tungsten oxide (WOx) thin films have been prepared by chemical bath deposition method. The films have been deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates. Electrochromic behavior of each film was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Electrochromic test device (ECTD) was constructed by using WOx as working electrode, together with PB film as an opposite (counter) electrode, and aqueous solution of 1 mol/dm3 KCl, slightly acidified with 2 drops of conc. HCl in 100 ml as an electrolyte. The optical transmission spectra of the bleached and colored states were recorded in the visible part of the spectrum. From these spectra, the contrast ratio was calculated. The coloration efficiency and the time response of the ECTD were also examined.



Lauresha Këpuska, Valbonë Mehmeti, Mentor Ismaili, Avni Berisha, Veprim Thaçi, Kaltrina Jusufi

UP, Department of Chemistry, Pristina, Kosovo

Section: Environmental Chemistry

The replacement of the inorganic cations in clay by quaternary ammonium ions is known to cause considerable modifications in the hydration and swelling properties of the clay and has impact also on the pore distribution and pore size of these materials. In this study we analyzed the dispersion of the clay pores for activated clays at different temperature range and also for modified ones with quaternary ammonium ions. The found size dispersion of the organic modified clay pores are in range 0.7to 3 nm and those of activated clay (75 % of pores) are between 1.2 to2.5 nm.  The differential dispersion of pores treated thermally at more elevated temperatures are 0.8 to 6 nm and represent 65% of the total pore volume (1.7 and 2.1 nm are dominant pore values). For the thermally treated organic modified clay the dominant pore radius are 3.6 and 6.3 nm.



Avni Berisha, Gentiana Alidema, Mimoza Haxhimustafa, Fikreta Ejupi, Kaltrina Jusufi, Valbonë Mehmeti, Jeton Halili, Veprim Thaçi, Adelina Halili, Lauresha Këpuska

UP, Department of Chemistry, Prishtinë, Kosovo

Section: Environmental Chemistry

Different industries produce a lot of wastewater, which contains a number of contaminants, including acidic or basic molecules, organic or inorganic toxic compounds, etc.  Many of the organic molecules are harmful and may affect aquatic life causing a number of diseases and disorders.  Hence, their removal from aquatic wastewater becomes very important. The use of peel materials as adsorbents in the purification processes through the adsorption is very favorable particularly as these materials are of near zero-cost for the production. Banana, orange, and potato peels are the most used types of biomass reported in literature. In our study we used organic waste materials derived from: banana, apple, potato and cucumber for the adsorption of two model molecules: phenolphthalein and methyl orange. The estimation of the sorption capacity for these two molecules was done by using UV-VIS spectroscopy. The results show that these materials in general have good sorption/removal capacity toward these molecules and this capacity is dependent among other factors (pH, adsorbents particle size, temperature, etc.) also on the composition/type of the used material.



Avni Berisha, Fexha Salihu, Vera Morina, Jeton Halili, Valbonë Mehmeti, Kaltrina Jusufi, Adelina Halili

UP, Department of Chemistry, Prishtinë, Kosovo

Section: Environmental Chemistry

Organochlorine pesticides were adsorbed on activated charcoal powders covalently grafted with phenyl and carboxyphenyl layers derived from diazonium salts. This covalent modification of activated charcoal powders was achieved by aryl radicals obtained through the sonically induced dediazonation of ‘’in situ’’ generated benzene-, 4-nitrobenzene- or 4-carboxybenzenediazonium chloride. The grafting reaction was assessed electrochemically by observing the reversible redox signal for the transformation of the bonded nitrophenyl group to nitrophenyl radical anion. The adsorption of the different pesticides onto these modified materials displayed high sorption efficiency and sorption capacity. The sorption percentages onto carboxyphenyl modified ACP of the pesticides (measured by GC-ECD) were in the range of: 90-100 % (DDT, δ-HCH, γ-HCH, endrin aldehyde), 80-90 % (methoxychlor, endosulfan II, p,p-DDD and β-HCH) and 60-80% (α-HCH, DDE, endosulfansulfate, endrin, endosulfan I, aldrin, heptachlorepoxid, dieldrin, heptachlor). 



Laura Binxhija, Arjana Ylli

Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania, Tirana, Albania

Section: Environmental Chemistry

The goal of this study is to determine and evaluate environmental indicators and pollution presence in various regions of Kosovo. Juniperuscommunis L (black juniper), Cupressaceae, Juniperusoxycedrus L. (red juniper) are medical plants known and useful for their therapeutic aspect. The biggest pollution is in Obiliq, at A and B thermal electric power plant complex and in the extended outskirt of Prishtina. Industrial processes in the outskirt of Prishtina and in the region of Mitrovica have resulted to have contaminated soil, water and plants significantly with heavy metals over the allowed norms internationally. Such contamination presents permanent risk to the environment as a result of uncontrolled releases into river waters and in the lands nearby industrial zones. Juniperusoxycedrus L. samples have been taken in Mitrovica, 10 km close to Zveqan foundry, also in the outskirt of Trepca. Juniperuscommunis, has not been found as a result of extreme contamination. Sample of Juniperuscommunis L have been taken also in Sllatintë Vogel, Fushë Kosovë, Obiliq. Additionally samples of Juniperuscommunis L have been collected in Novoberdë, Gjilan, which have extended use with therapeutic effect, mainly due to ativesutbsances acting like anti inflammation and coloristic. Some other substances like flavonoidet, polifenols, are present in black juniper seeds and in other parts of this plant.  Samples of Juniperusoxycedrus L have also been collected in Mushtisht – Suharek, as they have wide therapeutic usage, as diuretic, carminative and anti inflammatory. 



Ekaterina Klementjeva1, Svetlana Ovsiannikova 2

1Institute of Radiobiology of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Gomel, Belarus
2Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus

Section: Environmental Chemistry

A new integrated radiochemical technique has been used for assessment of activity concentrations of natural radioisotopes of lead and polonium in the samples of surface and ground waters. This technique determines the conditions and order of radiochemical operations and appropriate measurements of beta and alpha-activity of radionuclides, which were separated from water samples. It was tested and recommended for radionuclide determination by the State Committee of Standardization of the Republic of Belarus. Identification of radionuclides was fulfilled by alpha spectrometer “Alpha Analyst” with detector A 450-20 AM Alpha Pips ("Canberra") and beta radiometer “Berthold” LB‑770PC.

The goal of the work is assessment of activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Ро in the samples of natural waters, which are used as the sources of drinking water and comparison the received data with standards for drinking water established in Belarus (RPL-2000).

The objects of the investigation were the surface and ground waters, which were sampled within the territory of Gomel and Mogilev regions in 2008-2011.

It was established that activity concentrations of radionuclides in the water samples are within the limits for 210Po in the water samples and varies in the range 0.01–0.26 Bq·kg–1. But in some water samples it was higher than the intervention level for this radionuclide that is equal to 0.12 Bq·kg–1. Activity concentration of 210Pb in water samples was 0.006–0.15 Bq·kg–1 and corresponds to operating standard for drinking water because it is lower than intervention level (0.20 Bk·kg–1).

It was found that the highest total activity of the natural radionuclides is predominantly occurred for water from artesian wells. The lowest activity of the radionuclides usually revealed in the surface water samples. The activity of 210Po in surface waters always lower in comparison with other types of natural water sources at the same area. Processes of hydrolysis and complex formation determine solubility of polonium in natural water. In the pH range of 6–7, polonium forms positively charged colloids, which are easily captured by the negative charged colloids on clay minerals, and precipitates on the bottom of water sources.

Obtained data shows that distribution of radionuclides in the ground waters depend on the depth of artesian well. Activity of 210Pb and 210Po in groundwater varies within wide limits with changes of depth. The maximum concentration of the radionuclides is in artesian water of the Gomel and Mogilev regions sampled at a depth of about 100 meters.

The study of the activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210Po in water sources of Belarus is of interest and requires further research.



Liri Miho1, Ardian Maçi1, Blerina XHAFERAJ2

1University of Agriculture, Tirana, Albania
2Universit of Medicine, Tirana, Albania

Section: Environmental Chemistry

The consumption of fish is the most significant source of ingestion-related mercury exposure in humans and animals. Mercury and methl mercury are present in only very small concentration in seawater. However, they are absorbed, usually as methyl mercury, by algaeat the start of the foodchain. This algae is then eaten by fish and other organisms higher in the food chain.  Fish efficiently absorb methyl mercury, but only very slowly excrete it. Methyl mercury is not soluble and therefore is not apt to be excreted. The level of mercury in sardine fish canned is 0.013ppm. The danger level from consuming fish depends on species and size.  Greater fish weight leads to additional mercury found in fish body tissues. This study is referred to the sardines fish canned that are imported from different countries in Albania.  While various studies have shown high concentrations of mercury accumulated in fish, medical cases often go unreported and pose a difficulty in correlating mercury in fish with human poisoning. 



Liri Miho1, Blerina XHAFERAJ2

1University of Agriculture, Tirana, Albania
2University of Medicine, Tirana, Albania

Section: Environmental Chemistry

Pesticides can be determined as “antibiotics” of the plants. They are very common used in agriculture to control the thousands of weed species, harmful insects and numerous plant diseases that afflict crops. Residues of these compounds are detectable in plants and have been monitored since the 1950s. Organochlorine pesticides have extremely strong bonds between their chlorine and carbon components and are attracted to fats and highly insoluble in water. Exposure data to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) of potatoes samples were measured from different locations of markets in Tirana,Albania. The samples have been taken in random. There are set 24 organochlorine pesticides including :dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, lindan, chlordane, heptachlor, DDT, α HCH, β- HCH, γ- HCH ,BCH, PCB29, Heptachlor epoxide ,op-DDE, α Endosulfan,p-DDE, op-DDT, p-DDD, p-DDT, β -Endosulfan ,Captane, Methoxychlor, Mirex .In this study, we have detected  mostly lindan at  31.5% of samples. The samples have been examiated by the methods of FAO, with gaschromatography ECD detector and the results are frequently used as degradation in the environment. The measurements have been calculated in ppm levels. 



Jeton Halili, Avni Berisha, Adelina Halili, Valbonë Mehmeti, Kaltrina Jusufi

UP, Department of Chemistry, Pristina, Kosovo

Section: Environmental Chemistry

In the recent years, adsorption processes have been shown to be highly efficient for removal of dyes from industrial wastewater. Granular activated carbon is the most popular adsorbent, which has been used for decades and has shown great success, but it is expensive if used for water treatment. Use of waste materials as low-cost adsorbents is suitable due to their contribution in the reduction of costs for waste disposal, therefore contributing towards environmental protection.

In our study, we used cucumber peels as bio-sorbents for removal of the wastewater's color. During laboratory work, firstly, the cucumber peels were dispersed in distilled water for 24 hours, and were then dried until they reached constant weight. The peels were then grinded and as such, 0.01 grams were used for study purposes. Cucumber bio-sorbents have been successfully utilized for the removal of dye from wastewater. The effect of different parameters such as contact time, solution concentration, pH value . . .   were investigated.

Our research shows promising results of the use of the cumber derived bio sorbents for the removal of the water color.



Edmond Lukaj1, Floran Vila1, Florian Mandija2

1University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania
2University of Shkodra , Shkoder, Albania

Section: Environmental Physics

Atmospheric aerosols are the major that indicate on atmospheric climate. Although there have been more measurement and research, is still uncertain the way of their creation and their growth (Enghoff et al). Different theories have been developed in this direction, but we will focus on the formation of aerosols due to the presence of atmospheric ions. The theory on which we will rely is called Ion Induced Nucleation. Ions which are created from natural various factors such as cosmic radiation and radon, stimulate the creation and growth of aerosols. In this article we have built an approximate modeling of aerosol growth mechanism in the presence of atmospheric ions. Measurements of aerosols concentration are made in three channels 0.5μm, 0.3μm and 5μm in different moments of time.




Renata Longo

University of Trieste and INFN, Trieste, Italy

Section: Invited talk

The coherent and monochromatic x-ray beams available at the synchrotron radiation  (SR) laboratories are ideal tools for the development and the initial application of innovative techniques for medical imaging and radiation therapy. In the present communication the first clinical studies in k-edge subtraction imaging with SR are summarized, including coronary angiography and bronchography. In the last two decades the family of the x-ray phase-sensitive imaging techniques was developed and exciting results in bio-medical application were obtained: propagation-based phase-contrast imaging (PPCI), analyzed based imaging (ABI), grating interferometers (GI) and coded-aperture x-ray phase-contrast imaging (CAXPCI). Similarities and differences of these techniques are discussed.

The results of the recent trial in PPCI mammography at Elettra (Trieste, Italy) are discussed, in order to assess the clinical impact of the new imaging modality and the potential interest in its translation to clinical practice. The direct measurement of linear attenuation coefficient of the breast obtained during the SR mammography trial is also presented and discussed considering its consequences on mammography dosimetry.

The new program of phase-contrast breast CT under development at Elettra is presented. Recently, 3D breast imaging (tomosynthesis and cone-beam breast CT) has been introduced in clinical practice with significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy. The aim of the new research is to study the contribution of the phase-retrieval to the image quality of breast CT.

Increasing the image quality of the x-ray medical images at the level of the results obtained at the SR laboratories is highly desirable, hence the promising techniques for the translation of the phase-contrast imaging to the hospitals are briefly discussed.



Longo R. Current studies and future perspectives of synchrotron radiation imaging trials in human patients Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 809 (2016) 13–22

Rigon L. x-Ray Imaging with Coherent Sources. (2014) In: Brahme A. (Editor in Chief.) Comprehensive Biomedical Physics, vol. 2, pp. 193-220. Amsterdam: Elsevier



Nurdogan Can1, Mehmet Ayvacikli2, Yuksel Karabulut2, Laura Muresan3, Adil Canimoglu4

1Jazan University, Gizan, Saudi Arabia
2Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey
3Babes- Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
4Nigde University, Nigde, Turkey

Section: Material Science (Thermoluminescence, Cathodoluminescence and Photoluminescence)

This works focuses on a characterization of various type of luminescence of a series of green emitting Y3Al5O12 (YSO) phosphors doped with Ga, Gd and Mg ions prepared by gel-combustion method. The samples exhibit luminescence emissions, which depend on sample temperature and type of an irradiation for excitation such as X-ray, laser, incident electron beam. Here we examined radioluminescence (RL), cathodoluminescence (CL), photoluminescence (PL) along with XRD for clarification of relationship between lattice defects and the spectral luminescence emissions. The RL and CL spectra of YAG:Ce show emission band in the 300-450 nm range related to YAl antisite defects.  With increasing Ga3+ content, the broad band in the emission spectra of the obtained garnet nanophosphors shifted from 526 nm to 498 nm while full width half of maximum (FWHM) of the band in luminescence spectra tends to be greater than the width of YAG:Ce garnet. PL three dimensional isometric plots were recorded in order to see underline the overall signal shape changes during cooling the spectral data.  PL does not exhibit intrinsic UV band at room tempearture but it appears slightly at low intensity from 200 K to 10 K. Deconvolution of the spectra indicates that two emission bands occur in YSO:Ce host garnet. It is found that the garnet compound has general order and second order kinetics for mg=0.48 and mg=0.52, respectively. In our future research, a detailed study on other aspects of these phosphors on the basis of the promising findings presented in this paper will surely prove them worthy for numerous applications. 



Adrian-Ionut Cadis1, Laura Elena Muresan1, Ioana Perhaita1, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran2, Emil Indrea3

1”Raluca Ripan” Institute for Research in Chemistry, “Babes- Bolyai” University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
22Electronic Microscopy Centre, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
3National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Section: Material Science (Thermoluminescence, Cathodoluminescence and Photoluminescence)

Nanocrystalline doped and undoped zinc sulphide (ZnS) powders have been widely studied in the last years because of their excellent luminescence properties in correlation with particles nano-dimension. Due to their quantum confinement properties, ZnS nanocrystals can be used as emitting materials in the blue-to-violet spectral range.

The physical, chemical and luminescence properties of doped and undoped ZnS powders are exceptionally dependent on the particle size, morphology and dopant amount, which depend on the synthesis methods and conditions. Nanocrystalline doped and undoped ZnS powders can be obtained mainly by precipitation, from two different reagents one as metal ions and one as sulphide ions sources or by solvothermal dissociation, from of a single-source molecular precursor.

Herein we report the synthesis of undoped and manganese doped zinc sulphide nanocrystalline powders by microwave assisted solvothermal decomposition in ethylene glycol of an air-stable single-source molecular precursors i.e. zinc diethyldithiocarbamate Zn(DDTC)2 and zinc-manganese diethyldithiocarbamate (Zn,Mn)(DDTC)2. The single–source molecular precursors were prepared, at room temperature, in aqueous medium, from zinc and manganese acetate and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, using the reagent simultaneous addition technique (SimAdd).

The single-source molecular precursors as well as undoped and Mn doped ZnS nanocrystalline powders were characterized by ICP-OES, thermal analysis, SEM, X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A correlation between SimAdd preparation conditions and the photoluminescence and morpho-structural characteristics of ZnS powders was established.



This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS – UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-1391.



Dušanka Mandić1, Dragan Cvetković2

1MADU Clinic, Belgrade, Serbia
2Clinical Center of Serbia, Institute for Cardio Surgery, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Medical Devices

Innovative MADU health technology is scientifically approved and confirmed in practice as efficient, safe and environmental friendly registered and ratified by Ministry of Health of the Republic of Serbia (№ 022-04-19/2006-07). This patent was internationally researched by the Patent Cooperation Treaty WIPO UN as Novelty (N), Inventive step (IS) and Industrial applicability (IA).

MADU strips are used in eleven different forms with deep influence up to 55 cm of depth. MADU is magnetic, deep unipolar oriented field and it belongs to non-invasive medical techniques. Permanent magnets in placed in a certain order wrapped in silicone with magnetic influence of 600 to 3,500 mili teslas are placed over the skin as a strip. Magnetic field oriented in this way as an energy aspect similar to biophysical mechanisms of living beings, allows principal changes in an organism. Basic principles are: biophysical effects at the cellular level, the impact on water and its cluster structure, ferromagnetics and paramagnetics and opening of ions channels. Biophysical effects promote biochemical effect with membrane potential change and improve modulation of the potential of the potassium/sodium pump, synchronization of endogen oscillation of calcium ions; enzymes activation, especially of metalloenzymes, ATP production improvement. Those changes provoke bioelectrical effects: bioconductivity increase the cell’s membrane is equivalent to electrical battery due to diffusible and other ions concentration. Because of these local and global principles and mechanisms we achieved the following therapeutical effects: reducing of pain (analgesic, hypoesthesic, morphinemimetic effects); reducing of inflammation (anti-inflammation and ACTH-like effects); reducing of swelling (dipoles settlement, anti-oedematous effects); tissue oxygenation and nourishment (vasodilatation, spasmolytic effects, microcirculation, metabolism activation and acidity reduction); various tissues regeneration (angioneogenesis, cartilage neogenesis, opening Gap Junction channels, improvement of alkaline reaction, calcium ions building into the bone favor of mature healthy mature cells); due to these effects indication area is getting broader each day. The newest achieved effects are the chondroneogenesis and the neuroneogenesis of peripheral nerves.

Key words: regeneration, MADU health technology, MADU device, chondroneogenesis, angioneogenesis, neuroneogenesis.



Olga Bockeria, Mikhail Bazhin, Kirill Potlovskiy, Anna Satyukova, Tatyana Le, Vladimir Shvartz, Leo Bockeria

Bakoulev Scientific Center for Cardiovascular Surgery, Moscow, Russia

Section: Medical Devices

The aim: to explore the kinematic activity of the movement of the heart wall to convert the latter into electrical energy to power epicardial pacemaker.

Methods: The Bakoulev Scientific Center for Cardiovascular Surgery is working on the creation of the epicardial pacing system with a converter of the kinematic energy of the heart into electrical energy.

We are carrying out the experiments to create a compact system of energy conversion based on the effect of the occurrence of vibrations of the unbalanced inertial mass when making movements with an acceleration that is converted to EMF by magnetoelectric generator.

There have been developed and manufactured the Delta robot with six degrees of freedom for laboratory tests, which fully imitated the moving trajectory of the selected part of the epicardium according to the vector analysis of moving particles obtained by Echocardiography in patients with various cardiovascular pathologies.

The study was carried out on 6 groups of patients with different cardiovascular pathology: with the lesions of the right coronary artery, the left coronary artery, valve diseases, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction and in patients with lesions of the left main coronary artery.


According to the data of 90 patients with different cardiovascular pathology the experiments on Delta robot have been successfully done.

The first experiments showed the possibility of achieving a specific electrical power on the level of 30 UW, which is sufficient to power the stimulator in the "demand" mode.


It is established that the transformation of kinematic energy of the heart into electricity, allows reaching required power for a pacemaker in the "demand" mode. Further research is necessary to increase the specific gravity of the converter by optimizing the design and to determine the reliability of the converter.



Vladimir Shchedrenok1, Olga Moguchaya2, Tatjana Zakhmatova2, Ilja Zuev1, Konstantin Sebelev2

1Northwestern Federal Medical Research Center, Saint Petersburg, Russia
2Northwestern State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Section: Medical Imaging

The purpose – to estimate form and hemodynamic changes in the area of pathological brachiocephalic arteries tortuosity depending on patient body position (horizontal and orthostasis).

Materials and methods. At brachiocephalic arteries duplex scanning (350 patients), local and system hemodynamic importance of tortuosity of the internal carotid arteries and pre-mouth deformations of the vertebral arteries was estimated. For the first time the study was carried out not only in horizontal, but also in vertical position (patent N 2553925RU). Comparison group consisted of 120 patients who were simultaneously examined by means of a computer angiography (mean beam loading was 3.6±0.4 mSv) and magnetic resonant angiography.

Results. In the examined patients, deformations of internal carotid arteries were revealed in 38.6% of cases, tortuosity of the left internal carotid artery was considered to be pathological in 18.5% of cases, of the right – in 23.7%. In 66.7% of patients the lesion was of bilateral character. Acceleration of blood flow rate parameters to 55–65% in the area of tortuosity was registered; mean value of systolic blood flow rate was 166±28.3 cm/s on the left and 174±30.2 cm /s on the right. In vertical position tortuosity transformation was found in 31.6%: the angles of deformation became obtuse, the gradient of blood flow rate parameters decreased or was absent, in some cases the course of arteries became rectilinear. Pre-mouth deformations of the vertebral arteries course were revealed in 79.4% of patients, tortuosity of the left vertebral artery was considered to be pathological in 15.1% of cases, of the right – in 8.6%, mean value of systolic blood flow rate was 92±15.3 cm/s on the left and 76±125 cm/s on the right. In orthostasis pathological vertebral arteries deformations, the form of deformation transformed to non-pathological tortuosity in 28.8% of cases.

Conclusions. Orthostatic studies of patients open new approaches in diagnostics of pathological deformations of brachiocephalic arteries and indications to surgical treatment without significant beam load on a patient.

The method of color duplex scanning is a choice method in diagnostics of pathological tortuosity of brachiocephalic arteries due to high informational content, not invasiveness, lack of beam load and possibility of determination not only of the local, but also system hemodynamic importance of deformations.

Keywords: duplex scanning, internal carotid, vertebral artery, pathological tortuosity, non-pathological tortuosity, beam load.

Maurizio Sessa1, Claudia Rossi2, Annamaria Mascolo1, Enrico Grassi1, Sonia Fiorentino1, Cristina Scavone1, Alfonso Reginelli2, Antonio Rotondo2, Liberata Sportiello1

1Second University of Naples, Campania Regional Centre for Pharmacovigilance and Pharmacoepidemiology, Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Pharmacology L. Donatelli, Naples, Italy, Naples, Italy
2Department of Internal and Experimental Medicine, “Magrassi-Lanzara”, Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy, Naples, Italy

Section: Medical Imaging

Objective: During the last years in Italy, contrast media (CM) use increased. An increase of monitoring activities on CM-induced adverse drug reaction (ADR) is necessary, also in our regional territory. The main aim of this study was to give a preliminary evaluation of all Spontaneous Reports of ADRs (SRA) attributed to CM sent to Campania Pharmacovigilance Regional Center (CRFVC) from 01 January 2001 to 31 October 2014.
Research design and methods: For each SRA we evaluated: frequency and source, ADRs onset (time to event, seriousness and outcome), sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors of cases, the most reported CM (checking for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions).
Results: A total of 111 SRA were sent to CRFVC; specialist in radiology was the main source of reports. Ninety-seven SRA (87.3%) were referable to hypersensitivity reactions. Thirty-four SRA (30.6%) reported serious ADRs. The most reported CM were iopamidol, gadobenic acid and gadoteric acid. We identified two SRA induced by pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions.
Conclusions: During 14 years of post-marketing surveillance, only a few SRA concerning CM-induced ADRs were sent to CRFVC probably due to underreporting. We aim to improve monitoring activity on CM-induced ADRs especially in hospitals. Most reported ADR and CM were in line with the current body of literature.



Marija Dakovic Bjelakovic1, Dragan Stojanov2, Jelena Ignjatovic3, Jelena Popovic4, Tanja Dzopalic5

1Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
2Center of Radiology, Clinical Center of Nis, Nis, Serbia
3Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
4Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Clinic of Dentistry, Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
5Department of Imunology, Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia

Section: Medical Imaging

Background. The supraorbital notch and supraorbital foramen (SON/F) are important anatomical landmarks which allows the passage of supraorbital vassels and nerves into the facial region. Knowledge of their precise anatomical localization is important in maxillofacial surgery and in planning supraorbital nerve blocks. Three-dimensional computer tomography (3D-CT) volume rendering is novel technique in clinical and research setting to qualitatively and quantitatively examine the cranial foramina in living subjects.
Aim. In this study, we aimed to estimate the anatomical variations of SON/F using 3D-CT volume rendering and to compare them with sex and side.
Material and methods. One hundred and five adults (53 men and 52 women), aged 21 to 83 years, without any trauma or bone malformation of facial bones, were included in our study. Data of the subjects were collected in the Center of Radiology, Clinical Center Nis, Serbia. The 3D-CT images of the skull are obtained with a technique of lighting, removal of overlying anatomic structures and rotation. Presence of SON/F, its shape, diameter in millimeters, and distance from reference point were recorded. Obtained results were statistically analysed.
Results. The most common presentation of the supraorbital passage was single SON and it was noted in 51.4% on the right and in 56.2% on the left skull side. The single SOF was noted in 3.8% on the right and 6.7% on the left skull side. Double notch was found in 1.9% on the right and in 0.9% on the left side, while double foramen was not found in subjects included in our study. SON/F was not found in 42.9% and 36.2% on the right and left side, respectively. The average SON diameter was 3.7±0.9 mm, and the average SOF diameter was 1.7±0.5 mm. The average distance of SON/F to the facial midline was 21.9±3.1 mm. The average distance of SON/F to the temporal crest of the frontal bone was 26.0±3.0 mm and to the frontozygomatic suture was 27.5±2.6 mm. There was no statistically significant difference between the left and right skull sides for all parameters (p>0.05). However, statistically significant differences were found between males and females for some of these parameters.
Conclusion. The results of this study provide useful information about location of the supraorbital neurovascular bundle and may be used in preoperative evaluation.



Jelena Popić Ramač1, Verica Garay Vrhovac2

1University hospital Merkur/ Medical school University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
2Institut za medicinska istraživanja i medicinu rada, Zagreb, Croatia

Section: Medical Imaging

The purpose: evaluation of usefulness of dynamic MR imaging in differential diagnosis of anterior mediastinal tumors

Material and Methods:  Thity-three patients with suspected medistinal tumors were examined during three years . All of them went dynamic MR imaging with gadopentate-dimeglumine administreted in bolus injection. Sequential images were obtained in 5 minutes. A comparision of mean peak time (MPC) of time intensity curves with microspopic findings (cytology, biopsy) revealed signifcantly different MPC for diferent types of tumors. Diagnosis was confirmed in 18 cases with fine needle aspiration, in 10 by biopsy and in 5 with surgical excision surgery. 

Results: Statisticaly significant differences in MPC were found between tymoma and non-thymoma lesiones. MPC was about 1.5 and 3.5 in non-thymoma cases. It was possible to differentiate of stages I and II with stage III  based on MPC. MR showed optimal spcificity and sesnsitivity at "cut of point of 2.5 minutes.

Conclusion: Dynamic sequences of MR may help in differentiation between tymoma and non-thymoma lesions in anterior mediastinum.



Irena Dimitrijevic1, Dragan Mancic2, Mirjana Kocic3, Milica Lazovic4

1Institute for Treatment and Rehabilitation , Nis, Serbia
2Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
3Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clinical Center Nis, Nis, Serbia
4Institute for Rehabilitation Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Medical Imaging

Background: Infrared thermography is a  non-invasive, non-contact and painless method that can be contribute to diagnoses the pathologic conditions that directly or indirectly affects the vascular microcirculation tonus that is regulated by autonomous nervous system. Considering that one of the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the occurrence of the complex regional pain syndrome is sympathetic dysfunction, infrared thermography can be provided information which points tо this pathological condition.

Aim: The aim of this study is to examine the role of the infrared thermography in diagnosing of unilateral complex regional pain syndrome type I, observing the relationship between findings of the qualitative and quantitative analysis of thermograms and clinical presentation of the disease.

Methods: This study included 28 patients with unilateral complex regional pain syndrome type I, that were treated at the Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Clinical Center Nis (Serbia), during the period December 2004-January 2007. Complex regional pain syndrome type I had been diagnosed clinically on the basis of the modified research diagnostic criteria defined by the Budapest consensus group. The examined patients were recorded by infared thermovision camera (Varioscan high resolution 3021) and the obtained thermograms were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The analysis of the thermograms was done by IRBIS graphically-oriented software package.

Results: The qualitative analysis of the thermograms verified the hyperthermic area in respect to the contralateral at 27 patients, and a hypothermic area at 1 patients.

Quantitative analysis of the obtained thermograms determined maximal temperature values of as the regions of interest (ROIs), expressed in degrees Celsius. For each patient and for each separate region of interest, a difference in maximal temperature values was calculated, between region of interest of unaffected and affected lower extremity, according to the formula: ΔTmax = Tmax temperature ROI unaffected –Tmax temperature ROI affected extremity. The difference in maximal temperature value between homologous regions of interest of the lower extremities was in the range from 0.61 and 3,320C. The average value ΔTmax of 1,700C was determined.

Conclusion: By detecting changes in skin temperature, infrared thermography can contribute to diagnosing of unilateral complex regional pain syndrome, thus supplementing the findings of clinical examination.



Katsiaryna Halavataya1, Tatyana Ginko2, Ludmila Kalatskaya1

1Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus
2Minsk city clinical oncologic dispensary, Minsk, Belarus

Section: Medical Imaging

Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is an evolving method of diagnosis and treatment of oncologic pathologies. PDT is based on using special kinds of drugs called photosensitizers – substances that are sensitive to visible light and low-intensity laser emission with wavelength that matches photosensitizer’s absorption peak. Development of a new kind of photosensitizer – “Photolon”, which consists of polyvinylpyrrolidone and E6 chlorine salt – opened up new ways to evolve PDT methods.

A software complex for processing and structural detailization of color images was developed that allows analyzing color images acquired using PDT. The aim of the software complex is to increase productivity of endoscopic diagnosis by using image pre-processing and structural analysis of images acquired using videoendoscopic systems. Proposed pre-processing methods include contrast enhancement and optical system distortion correction. Structural analysis comprises multiple steps, such as determining fluorescent component of the image and detecting oncological formations.

The software complex also includes algorithms for calculating the area of regions of interest, and provides the ability to perform volumetric planning for further treatment and diagnosis.

The complex is developed using ImageJ image processing package plug-in platform and is a cross-platform solution. Developed software allows interactively solving various specialized problems of videoendoscopic image processing and allows extending its capabilities.




Vojislav Antic1, Julie Haglund2

1University Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
2medical physicist, Gothenburg, Sweden

Section: Medical Imaging

Time-of-flight (TOF) implementation in positron emision tomography (PET) brings additional information, coincidence timing resolution, to the imaging process. Compared with non-TOF imaging, coincidence timing resolution results in a reduction in uncertainty that permits images to be created using fewer iterations and yields images with better signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). TOF in PET as a concept has existed for more than 30 years, with applications in cardiology and brain imaging using N-13 and O-15. Ten years ago, new scintillator detectors based on lutecium were introduced, combining both high light output and short decay time. These scintillators brought the needed timing resolution for standard whole-body TOF PET using F-18.

Better robustness (in the sense that the images are less sensitive to errors in data collection) and lesion detectability (in combination with point-spread-function (PSF) correction), enables thinking toward site optimization benefits. Bearing in mind that the dilemma in clinical practice, to speed up the scan or to reduce the patient dose, depends mostly whether a facility has a medical cyclotron or not, this work focuses on theoretical considerations about the potential reduction of patient dose based on appropriate clinical studies.

Compared to the non-TOF technology, clinical studies have shown that it is possible to reduce patient dose up to 30%. On the other hand, it has been shown that, combined with the PSF information and current ordered-subset-maximum-likelihood (OSEM) algorithms, image quality for overweight patients could be significantly improved by applying TOF. This encourages further study and a change of the model based on patient weight. This change would result in a revision of the existing EANM procedure guidelines, either repacing them or combining them with a system based on a body-mass-index (BMI) concept, and thus result in significant dose reductions with stronger patient-based dose optimisation. Conseqently, this will also reduce exposure of the nuclear medicine staff.



Vojislav Antic1, Julie Haglund2

1University Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
2medical physicist, Gothenburg, Sweden

Section: Medical Imaging

Assessing PET image quality is a challenge due to its clinical subjectivity and difficulties in standardisation. Methods to evaluate the PET image quality include image noise (IN) and noise equivalent count rate (NECR), which are automatic and objective measurements determined from the reconstructed image or PET raw emission data from phantoms. The NECR is mostly used to measure the overall count rate performance of a PET system, and it is equal to the true coincidence rate that would give the observed SNR if there were no randoms and no scatter.  Since randoms and scatter reduce the SNR, this effective true coincidence rate is always less than the observed true coincidence rate.

The NECR is proportional to the SNR ratio in the final reconstructed images and, therefore, serves as a good, objective parameter to compare the performances of different PET scanners. Image noise can be minimized by maximizing NECR, and manufacturers emphasize scanner performance by stating peak NECR.  Indeed, the count rate capabilities of modern PET scanners is high, but it must be noted that the peak NECR is often outside clinically relevant activity concentrations.  This means that administered activity is limited by radiation safety factors, as opposed to scanner count rate considerations. Patient-based NECR estimates can provide insight into maximum injected activities that should be used with the scanner in order to avoid operating beyond the peak NECR.  Near the peak NECR, the improvement of SNR with increasing activity is very small.  A very large increase in injected activity yields only a small increase in SNR when operating near the peak NECR of the scanner.  This implies the possibility of a considerable reduction in injected activity without significantly compromising image quality.  According to patient-based NECR estimates, for patients with large BMI, injecting more activity based on weight improves the image quality only minimally.  From a view of radiation protection and image quality, it is preferred to increase the duration of the scan.

With the current three-dimensional-ordered-subset-maximum-likelihood (3D-OSEM) algorithm, SNR² versus NECR is nonlinear at activity concentrations beyond the peak NECR.  For the range of activity concentrations usually found in the clinic, image SNR varies with activity concentration and is dominated by the 3D-OSEM reconstruction algorithm and associated parameters. SNR cannot be predicted by the NECR when using 3D-OSEM reconstruction, particularly for those clinical applications, such as cardiac imaging, that require high activity concentration. The 3D-OSEM algorithm does not correct for scatter and random counts by subtraction of the estimated values, but rather incorporates the corrections inside the iterative loop. This approach minimizes the error propagation in correcting scatter and random counts and improves image quality.  Plotting SNR² versus the coincidence trues rate for the 3D-OSEM reconstruction shows a dominant linear relationship regardless of reconstruction parameters.  This suggests that scatter and randoms do not impact image quality.   Image noise in the EM algorithm is related to the true image value, so one can infer that this could also be true for OSEM. One consequence is that for 3D-OSEM reconstruction, the suggested limit of injected activity, traditionally based on NECR, should be based on the trues count rate. This means that images with higher SNR will be produced by increasing the injected activity to match the peak trues count rate for 3D-OSEM.




Dragica Obad Kovačević, Jelena Popić Ramač, Ika Kardum-Skelin, Vinko Vidjak

University Hospital Merkur, Zagreb, Croatia

Section: Medical Imaging

Purpose: To evaluate the value of ultrasound (US) in predicting US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings in thyroid gland nodules.

Material and Methods: 168 US-guided FNAC specimen adequate for analysis. US features of thyroid nodules that were assessed: size, echogenicity, echotexture, margins regularity, calcifications, and presence of a hypoechoic rim.

Results: FNAC revealed 150 benign and 18 malignant nodules. The mean size of malignant nodules was 28+12 mm vs. 18+12 mm for benign nodules (p<0.05). US features that were suggestive of malignancy: hypoechogenicity, calcifications, irregular margins, and the absence of a hypoechoic rim.

Conclusion: US is able to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Thyroid nodules that are ultrasonically suspicious of malignacy should undergo US-guided FNAC.




Ahmet Murat Şenışık1, Serap Teksöz2, Çiğdem İçhedef2, Ayfer Yurt Kılçar2, Eser Uçar2, Kadir Arı2, Yasemin Parlak3, Elvan Sayıt Bilgin3

1Vocational School of Health Services, Şifa University, İzmir, Turkey
2Department of Nuclear Applications, Institue of Nuclear Sciences, Ege University, İzmir, Turkey
3Department of Nuclear Medicine, Celal Bayar University, , Manisa, Turkey

Section: Medical Imaging

In recent years, several radiolabeled molecules such as peptides, proteins, and aptamers have been proposed as radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging, highly target-specific PET (Positron Emission Tomography) imaging probes and nuclear medicine for the treatment of tumors.

Peptide receptors are overexpressed on tumor cells more than normal cells. This is the molecular basis of a number of peptide applications. Nuclear medicine studies showed that some tumor cells are sensitive to certain types of peptides and selecting a suitable peptide gives opportunity for specific imaging or tissue targeted therapy.

As valuable biological tools, radiolabeled small peptides are under investigation and they are excellent candidates for nuclear medicine applications. Glycylglycine (Gly-Gly) is a small peptide which has favorable pharmacokinetic properties.

The aim of this study was to compare the biological behavior of [18F]FDG radiolabeled Gly-Gly and 99mTc(CO)3+ radiolabeled Gly-Gly in-vivo.

In current study, we conducted experiments in four stages. The first stage is radiolabeling glycylglycine with 99mTc(CO)3+. The second stage is [18F]FDG radiolabeling of glycylglycine. Thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC) and high performance liquid radio chromatography (HPLRC) methods were used to perform the quality control studies of radiolabeled glycylglycine. The third stage is in vivo biodistribution studies on male Wistar Albino rats and the final stage is comparison of the biological behavior of the radiolabeled compounds. Additionally biodistribution of 99mTc(CO)3+ radiolabeled Gly-Gly was studied ex vivo.

Radiolabeling of Gly-Gly was achieved with high radiolabeling yield for both 99mTc(CO)3+ and [18F]FDG.  In vivo study results of both radiolabeled complexes showed increased uptake in the kidneys and bladder and excretion from body was both hepatobiliary and renal. Consequently obtained new radiolabeled compounds were thought to contribute to the literature as imaging agents.



Jelena Popović1, Marija Daković Bjelaković2, Jovanka Gašić1, Milan Spasić3, Marija Nikolić1, Radomir Barac1

1Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Clinic of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia
2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia
3Department of Oral Surgery, Clinic of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia

Section: Medical Imaging

The identification of the mental foramen location is important for both diagnostic and clinical procedures. In the field of endodontics, radiographic appearance of the mental foramen may result in misdiagnosis of radiolucent periapical lesion in the area of mandibular premolar teeth. Panoramic radiographs provide the ability to view the entire body of mandible and allow more accurate localization of mental foramen in both horizontal and vertical dimension.
The purpose of this study was to determine the position of mental foramen in relation to the radiographic apex of the mandibular second premolar on panoramic radiographs.
Two hundered digital panoramic radiographs were analysed in this study. Horisontal and vertical position of the mental foramen was determined in relation to the two reference lines. A horizontal line  was paralel to the occlusal line at the radiographic apex of the second premolar, while the vertical line was perpendicular to the horizontal line at the apex of the tooth. Horizontal position was recorded as mesial, intersecting or distal to the vertical line, while vertical position was recorded as above, intersecting or below the horizontal line.
    Fifty percent of the panoramic radiographs showed that the mental foramen position was mesial and below the radiographic apex of the second premolar. Intersecting and below position was observed in 8% of the radiographs, distal and below in the 6%, mesial and intersecting in 21%, distal and intersecting in 2%, while 13% of the radiographs showed centered position of the mental foramen at the radiographic apex of the second premolar.
The most common position of the mental foramen was mesial and below the radiographic apex of the mandibular second premolar. Visualization of the mental foramen in increased when a panoramic radiograph is available for examination.



Marija Dakovic Bjelakovic1, Dragan Stojanov2, Jelena Ignjatovic3, Jelena Popovic4, Tanja Dzopalic5

1Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
2Center of Radiology, Clinical Center of Nis, Nis, Serbia
3Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
4Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Clinic of Dentistry, Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
5Department of Imunology, Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia

Section: Medical Imaging

Background. The supraorbital notch and supraorbital foramen (SON/F) are important anatomical landmarks which allows the passage of supraorbital vassels and nerves into the facial region. Knowledge of their precise anatomical localization is important in maxillofacial surgery and in planning supraorbital nerve blocks. Three-dimensional computer tomography (3D-CT) volume rendering is novel technique in clinical and research setting to qualitatively and quantitatively examine the cranial foramina in living subjects.
Aim. In this study, we aimed to estimate the anatomical variations of SON/F using 3D-CT volume rendering and to compare them with sex and side.
Material and methods. One hundred and five adults (53 men and 52 women), aged 21 to 83 years, without any trauma or bone malformation of facial bones, were included in our study. Data of the subjects were collected in the Center of Radiology, Clinical Center Nis, Serbia. The 3D-CT images of the skull are obtained with a technique of lighting, removal of overlying anatomic structures and rotation. Presence of SON/F, its shape, diameter in millimeters, and distance from reference point were recorded. Obtained results were statistically analysed.
Results. The most common presentation of the supraorbital passage was single SON and it was noted in 51.4% on the right and in 56.2% on the left skull side. The single SOF was noted in 3.8% on the right and 6.7% on the left skull side. Double notch was found in 1.9% on the right and in 0.9% on the left side, while double foramen was not found in subjects included in our study. SON/F was not found in 42.9% and 36.2% on the right and left side, respectively. The average SON diameter was 3.7±0.9 mm, and the average SOF diameter was 1.7±0.5 mm. The average distance of SON/F to the facial midline was 21.9±3.1 mm. The average distance of SON/F to the temporal crest of the frontal bone was 26.0±3.0 mm and to the frontozygomatic suture was 27.5±2.6 mm. There was no statistically significant difference between the left and right skull sides for all parameters (p>0.05). However, statistically significant differences were found between males and females for some of these parameters.
Conclusion. The results of this study provide useful information about location of the supraorbital neurovascular bundle and may be used in preoperative evaluation.
Key words: variations; supraorbital foramen; supraorbital notch; computed tomography; volume rendering.



Deniz Bulja1, Dragan Stojanov2, Jelena Ignjatovic3, Marija Dakovic Bjelakovic4, Jelena Popovic5

1Clinic of Radiology, Clinical Center Sarajevo , Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
2Center of Radiology, Clinical Center of Nis, Nis, Serbia
3Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
4Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
5Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Clinic of Dentistry, Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia

Section: Medical Imaging

Background. The anatomical variations of the temporal bony represent a significant problem for otologic and nurootologic surgery. Dehiscence of the facial nerve canal is most common variations which makes facial nerve vulnerable. The High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) with multiple rows of detectors is a recommended method for evaluation of temporal bone and facial canal.
Aim. In this study, we aimed to determine both the presence and the incidence of dehiscence of the tympanic segment of the facial nerve canal using HRCT and obtained results compare with age and sex.  
Material and method. The retrospective-prospective study was performed at the Clinic for Radiology, University Clinical Center Sarajevo. After the criteria for participation and non-participation in the study were applied, the study included 295 patients (135 men and 166 women) of age ranging from 5 years to 75 years with performed computed tomography (CT) of temporal bone as a part of standard procedure due to suspicion of pathological activity in that area. We divided the subjects into seven age groups. Each group included the ten-year period.  Presence of dehiscence of the facial nerve canal were recorded and obtained results were statistically analysed.
Results. Of the total number of patients included in the study, the dehiscence of the tympanic segment of the facial nerve canal was found in 95 patients (32%). Of 590 temporal bones, there were 118 temporal bony with facial nerve canal dehiscence in tympanic segment (20%). The dehiscence without stenosis of the oval window was noted in 110 temoral bony (18.6%). The dehiscence with stenosis of the oval window was noted in 8 temporal bony (1.4%). There was no statistically significant difference between age groups (p=0.245, Pearson`s χ2 test). However, there was no statistically significant differences between males and females (p=0.385, Pearson`s χ2 test).
Conclusion. The visualisation imaging techniques as CT is the preferred method for evaluation of temporal bone and facial nerve canal. Determination of both the presence and the incidence of dehiscence of facial nerve canal is of great importance in standard practice of radiologists as negligence to call attention to them during preoperative evaluation. According to that, it may be concluded that it can results in iatrogenic nerve injury which will have severe psychophysical consequences for the patient.
Key words: dehiscence; facial nerve canal; tympanic segment; computed tomography.



Diana Ospanova1, Zhanna Abdrakhmanova2, Marzhan Kanafina3

1Astana Medical University, Astana, Kazakhstan
2Astana medical University, Astana, Kazakhstan
3Astana oncology center, Astana, Kazakhstan

Section: Medical Imaging


to analyze the results of sighting trephine biopsy under ultrasound control among women with breast lumps.

Material and methods:

Technology of histological diagnosis has been used in Oncology сenter of Astana during the three years. In the period from September 2014 to March 2015, we attended the trephine biopsy under visual control of breast lumps. All patients are performed ultrasound diagnostics and digital mammography before invasive procedures. Ultrasonography was conducted online on the expert class apparatus “Toshiba Alio 400” with using linear transducer with 7.5-10 MHz.

We analyzed outpatient cards of 75 women with breast disease, who had diagnostic investigation of breast lumps. Morphological verification of diagnoses was performed by histological analysis of biopsy material. They obtained after trephine biopsy from interested areas by "free hand" with using "gun-needle" (BARD-Magnum, 16 G).Blood flow in the area of upcoming biopsy was evaluated before performing trephine biopsy under visual control with using "gun-needle" in order to select the most secure acoustic windows and reduce risk of bleeding.

All procedures were performed on outpatient basis. After compliance the rules of asepsis and antisepsis linear transducer of ultrasound machine was directed to the mammary gland. After local anesthesia with 0.25% lidocaine under ultrasound guidance we took an average of 4 column tissue of formation, which was sent for histological examination.


The histological analysis of biopsy materials obtained from 105 cases of benign breast lumps were identified in 29 (27.5%) cases. Among them: fibrocystic disease prevailed in 72.4% (21 cases).Histologically verified diagnoses of breast cancer were 76 cases, accounting for 72.3% of the total number of patients. Among them: medium differentiated infiltrative breast cancer prevailed in 85.5% (65 cases).

So, all 105 cases, which directed to trephine biopsy under ultrasound control, involved from 76 cases of malignant tumors and 29 cases of benign breast lumps.

After analyze the age groups, 76 cases with malignant tumors were women about 50-69 years.

It revealed the average age of patients with fibroadenoma -22 years, with local fibrosis - 56 years old, fibrocystic disease - 50 years old, infiltrative ductal carcinoma - 47 years old, medium differentiated infiltrative carcinoma -62 years old, low-grade differentiated infiltrative carcinoma -59 years old, high-grade differentiated infiltrative carcinoma - 57 years old .

So, trephine biopsy under ultrasound control is an integral part of early diagnosis of breast cancer to exclude malignant tumors among women.


The advantage of the method of trephine biopsy under visual control is that you can avoid a lot of unjustified operations due to false "positive" results of investigation. And, vice versa, it puts proven histological diagnosis of breast cancer after false "negative" conclusion mammography. Histological examination with sensitivity of up to 99.0% can put final diagnosis of malignancy of mammary gland and determine individual pre-operational treatment. So, it increases chances of recovery and 5-year survival. This method can be a "gold" standard for all cancer services in Kazakhstan.



Zhanna Abdrakhmanova

Astana medical university, Astana, Kazakhstan

Section: Medical Imaging

Objective: To estimate complex diagnostics and providing tertiary care in the form of endoprosthesis replacement in patients with hemophilic arthropathy amongst population of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Materials and methods: The work is based on an analysis of results of examination and treatment of 65 patients with hemophilic arthropathy of large joints. To determine the volume of orthopedic care at admission and after surgery, all patients with hemophilia A, besides hematological laboratory work also used the following methods: X-ray, CT and MRI, rentgendensitometry and ultrasound osteometry.

Results: The clinicoradiological classification E.Z. Novikova (1967) was used when using standard X-ray to assess severity of joint destruction in patients with hemophilia. According to X-ray findings:  in 26% of cases revealed no pathology (although the patients complained of pain in the joints), I stage is set in 5,8% of patients, II stage - in 6,7%, 37.5% , IV stage in 24,4% , during the examination of the hip joints - III-IV stage

Lately, X-ray computed tomography widely used for pathology of joints. We evaluated progression of  hemophilic osteoarthritis with using standard radiography and computed tomography in order to accurately determine bone changes at different stages of osteoarthritis.

Stage 1: the x-ray:  height of joint space is not reduced or decline slightly (to 10%), marginal osteophytes and  subchondral cysts are absent; on computer tomograms: subchondral cysts with sporadic sclerotic rim, minor subhodndral sclerosis, glomerular bone structure in edge of articular ends  as a sign of osteoporosis unexpressed.

Stage 2: the x-ray: small (from 10 to 25-50%) reduction height of  joint space, isolated small osteophytes; on computer tomograms: 2-3 small subchondral cysts with sclerotic rim, sometimes with breaking line, local subhodndral sclerosis in tibiofemoral area or patella-femoral joint region, regional erosion in subchondral epiphysis, joint contours rough, bone structure is glomerulal, cellular.

Stage 3:  the x-ray and computer tomograms deformation of articular ends, reducing height of  joint space of more than 50%, subchondral layer is destroyed due to  single large or 3 small marginal osteophytes or more, 2-3 large or 3-5small subchondral cysts and more; on computer tomograms as in aseptic necrosis - signs of depressed fracture, moderate subchondral sclerosis, intercondylar eminence smoothed and destroyed, bone structure of metaphysis  glomerular.

Stage 4: the x-ray and computer tomograms articular surface is deformed, flattened, joint space narrowed or complete obliteration of the interosseous space, with fibrous and  most bony ankylosis, large marginal osteophytes, 4-5 large subchondral cysts in subchondral layer, significantly pronounced common subchondral osteosclerosis; on computer tomograms increase CT density areas of depressed fracture, displacement of patella and its various deformation, osteoporosis as a major cellular structure.

CT, unlike X-rays, has high sensitivity characteristics in diagnosis of hemophilic arthropathy (91.8% and 72.7%, respectively), whereas specificity of radiography superior CT specificity (86.4% and 71.3%). The combination of X-rays  + CT increases  sensitivity to 96.7%, at the same time ratio of TM and DS is optimal (3: 2).

Conclusion. Our experience of highly specialized medical care to patients with hemophilia in Kazakhstan with active implementation of early surgical rehabilitation of affected joint  contributed to increase number of positive results was due to  recovery of life’s quality of patients in this category. Using wide arsenal of methods of diagnostics like X-ray, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging has allowed to assess  joints’ changes  in hemophilic arthropathy. They play an important role in evaluation of  disease’s dynamics, in planning of operations and timely prevention of severe complications of hemophilic arthropathy.



Huseyin Ozan Tekin1, Umit Kara2, Ozlem Ozturk3, Tugba Manici3, Elif Ebru Altunsoy3, Baris Cavli4

1Uskudar University, Vocational School of Health Services, Radiotherapy Department, Istanbul, Turkey
2Suleyman Demirel University, Vocational School of Health Services, Medical Imaging Department, Isparta, Turkey
3Uskudar University, Medical Radiation Research Center (USMERA), Istanbul, Turkey
4Affidea, Istanbul, Turkey

Section: Medical Imaging

A Computerized Tomography (CT) scan associates a series of X-ray images obtained from different angles to create patient’s cross-sectional body parts images. It can be used especially for bones, blood vassels and soft tissues. As a comparison between two device, provided information from the patient by using CT is greater then the normal plain X-ray device. Since CT uses various dose of X-ray for imaging of body radiation protection became a major topic in investigation areas. One of fundamental principle of radiation protection is  distance factor. In CT facilities maximum dose occurs near gantry and dose rate is decreases by distance. To know the rate of reduction of the amount of dose that distance is very important for radiation protection procedure especially for apply criterias of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on radiation proteciton. In this study, we measured dose rates with small distance rates from gantry untill exit door and compared it Monte Carlo (MC) results. To calculate the Monte Carlo results also we modeled a simulation input for CT facility by using MCNP-X (version 2.4.0) Monte Carlo code. We obtained the dose rate changes on distance factor  by using Monte Carlo method. We achieved a good agreement between MCNP-X results and clinical experimental results. It can be concluded that Monte Carlo (MC) is a strong tool for radiation protection calculations in CT facilities.



Huseyin Ozan Tekin1, Umit Kara2

1Uskudar University, Vocational School of Health Services, Radiotherapy Department, Istanbul, Turkey
2Suleyman Demirel University, Vocational School of Health Services, Medical Imaging Department, Isparta, Turkey

Section: Medical Imaging

In recent years, using of the x-rays with different radiological devices became used frequently. X-rays are produced in vacuum tubes by bombarding a metal target with high-speed electrons and radiological images occur after passing of resulting radiation through the patient’s body on to a photographic plate or digital recorder to produce a radiological image. X-ray used devices can be classified in radiology such as radiography, fluoroscopy, mammography and CT. In this study, we present a general approach for the simulation of x-ray spectra emitted from targets bombarded with electron beam for different energy ranges which are widely used in different radiological devices. Electron and photon transport is simulated by using the SpekCalc GUI code (version 1.1). In this study, we calculated the total photon spectra of the Tungsten (W) target for 150 keV and 12c anode angle and certain energies for required energy values which are necessary for the well radiodiagnostic process. We also simulated with same parameters by adding filter material into x-ray tube. We achieved a good agreement between clinical data and Monte Carlo (MC) method. The results showed that Monte Carlo (MC) method is in well agreement with manufacturer parameters.



Huseyin Ozan Tekin1, Umit Kara2, Tugba Manici3, Ozlem Ozturk3, Elif Ebru Altunsoy3

1Uskudar University, Vocational School of Health Services, Radiotherapy Department, Istanbul, Turkey
2Suleyman Demirel University, Vocational School of Health Services, Medical Imaging Department, Isparta, Turkey
3Uskudar University, Medical Radiation Research Center (USMERA), Istanbul, Turkey

Section: Medical Imaging

A mammogram is an x-ray image of the breast. It can be used to periodic control for breast cancer who have no signs or symptoms of the disease. It can also be used if there is a tuber or other indication that may be related with breast cancer. In order to obtain image contrast with these materials, basic requirement is to produce highly low energy photons. A way of obtaining a very low energy beam is to use a low kV in X-ray tube. In this study, an investigation on effect of angular variation and also effect of depth dose carachteristic on certain target has been done and also related results observed. Results showed that the photon beam spectra and their mean energy are changed significantly with anode angle. Electron and photon transport is simulated by using the general-purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP-X (version 2.4.0).



Umit Kara1, Huseyin Ozan Tekin2

1Suleyman Demirel University Vocational School of Health Services Medical Imaging Techniques, Isparta, Turkey
2Uskudar University Vocational School of Health Services Radiotherapy Department, Istanbul, Turkey

Section: Medical Imaging

Mammography, is a noninvasive application that helps physicians diagnose. A mammogram is basically an x-ray picture of the breast. Mammography unit is a x-ray specific type of breast imaging. Mammography uses low radiation dose x rays to detect breast cancer or early before women experience symptoms. Like all X-ray units, mammograms use doses of low ionizing radiation to generate images. But low doses sometimes of ionizing radiation can increase the risk of longer term effects such as cancer. In this work, our purpose to compare patient radiation doses and patient lifetime attributable risks. We measured radiation patient doses and background radiation in two different mammography unit (digital, analog). We were measured radiation patient doses and background radiation in two different mammography unit (digital, analog). 



Nicoleta Andreea Pasare (Tudor), Radu Mutihac

University of Bucharest - Faculty of Physics, Bucharest, Romania

Section: Medical Imaging

The purpose of the present research work is to differentiate between the stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD) by extracting specific features at individual level. To this end, the study was performed by analyzing brain magnetic resonance (MR) susceptibility-weighted images (SWI) by means of support vector machine (SVM) classification algorithms. Magnetic susceptibility images are relatively a new type of MR images within the field of medical imaging modalities. These images display better contrast comparatively to T1- and T2-weighted MR images.

Previously reported studies have shown that using SVM classifiers to analyze magnetic susceptibility images can provide significant information about discriminating at individual level between PD and/or other types of neurological diseases. The main purpose of the study is to further refine the analysis of PD patients in order to delineate the initial from the advanced stages of disease at individual level. The results will be statistically validated using a fundamentally different classification approach like hierarchical fuzzy cluster analysis (FCA) and/or spatial independent component analysis (ICA).

The data used in the present work were acquired from a group of 16 patients with PD and from a group of 25 healthy subjects using a MR scanner at 1.5 T. The patient group was subsequently divided in two subgroups: advanced stage patients and initial stage patients.

The analysis was structured on 4 cases comparing: (i) the two main groups (patients – healthy subjects), (ii) the advanced stage patients and healthy subjects, (iii) the initial stage PD patients and healthy subjects, and (iv) the initial stage PD patients and advanced stage PD patients.

The research will mainly promote means for faster diagnosis of PD and more efficient therapy.



Marija Glisic1, Erich Sorantin2

1Medical faculty of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
2Division of Children Radiology, Medical faculty of Graz, Graz, Austria

Section: Medical Imaging

Purpose: To investigate whether standard chest x-ray in children includes thyroid gland and  to  

indicate possible harm of radiation exposure in children.

Methods and materials: Study based on population of 109 children age 0 to 18 years, divided

into six age groups: infants (0-1 years of age) , toddlers (1-3), preschoolers (3-5), middle

childhood ( 6-11), young teens (12-14) and teenagers (15-18). Thyroid gland position was

determined by screening MRI images. MRI images were collected searching patient data base

retrived from PAC system. Data on vertebral position were collected for the superiod poles of

thyroid gland,  isthmus and the inferior poles of thyroid gland, afterwards statistical analysis was


Results: The mean values and standard deviations of all parameters  calculated. Study showed

the inferior poles of thyroid gland in 51% of children in all age groups was located at level of

seventh cervical vertebra. The superiod poles of thyroid lobes in 31 % of children was located at

level of C5, and isthmus in 32% of children at level of C6. We performed Kruskal Wallis Test

that has showed significant difference in position of thyroid gland between the age groups,

however there was no significant difference between the sexes.

Conclusion: Our study has shown that standard chest x- day inludes inferior poles of thyroid

gland. As chest x- ray is one of the most used imaging methods in childhood further

investigation is needed in order to indicate consequences of radiation exposure.



Julie Haglund

medical physicist, Gothenburg, Sweden

Section: Medical Physics

Whether installing PET/CT in an existing department or building a new facility, shielding for PET/CT is complicated and expensive [1]. The energy of positron annihilation radiation is greater than the energy of radiation used with other diagnostic imaging modalities. National regulatory limits dictate the annual radiation exposures for uncontrolled and controlled areas, and it is necessary to consider not only areas immediately adjacent to the PET/CT, but also areas above and below the facility. Barrier shielding must be determined for floors, ceilings, and adjacent walls. The short half-life of PET radionuclides and movement of injected patients within the department are also factors that must be considered when planning a PET/CT installation. Various materials can be used in order to shield positron annihilation radiation, and choices should be cost effective and practical. Effective planning for the installation of a PET/CT will include a medical physicist, workers from the nuclear medicine department, an architect, and the PET/CT manufacturer. Methods for estimating the shielding required for PET/CT take into consideration decay of the radionuclide, attenuation in the patient, and the examination protocol. [1] Madsen MT, Anderson JA, Halama JR, Kleck J, Simpkin DJ, Votaw JR, et al. PET and PET/CT shielding requirements AAPM Task report 108, Med Phys2006;33:4–15.



Md Shakilur Rahman1, Md. Abdus Sattar2, Meher Nigar Sharmin3, AKM Moinul Haque Meaze2

1Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh
3Cancer Center, Khwaja Yunus Ali Medical College and Hospital, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh

Section: Medical Physics

The high energy X-ray photon are widely used for the cancer patients treated with tumor at depth whereas electron beams for superficial structure near the skin and soft tissue. The aim of the radiation therapy is to maximize the killing of cancer cells in a tissue by radiation beam keeping the sparing of healthy cells at an acceptable level. The effectiveness of the output of treatment is highly dependent on the radiation dose being delivered to the treatment site. The clinical practice leads to generally agreed recommendations on the required accuracy in the clinical dosimetry for radical curative being given in International Commission on Radiation Units & Measurements (ICRU, Report-24, 1976) for at least accuracy of ±5%. The output dose measurement of two Clinac (DHX-3186 and 2300CD) with photon beam of energies 6 and 15 MV and electron beam of energies 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18-MeV at National Institute of Cancer Research and Hospital (NICRH) Bangladesh have been measured with parallel plate ionization chambers TW23343 & A10 for electron and FC65-G for photon using IBA water phantom at reference conditions. Three different dosimetry protocols TRS-398, AAPM TG-51 and DIN 6800-2 were used in the present work. The dosimetry of electron beam has been measured with maximum uncertainty ± 1.74% by parallel plate ionization chamber TW23343 & A10. A deviation between the chambers has been observed with a maximum value of 4.62 % using AAPM TG-51. The deviation among protocols using TW23343 chamber has also been observed with a maximum value of 3.67 % between TRS-398 & TG-51, 3.92 % between TG-51 & DIN 6800-2 and 0.95% between TRS-398 and DIN 6800-2. For the photon beam two cylindrical chambers FC65-G (2005) & FC65-G (2009) have been used which shows a maximum deviation of 1.16% for TRS-398 & TG-51 and 0.68% for DIN 6800-2. The deviations among the protocols for photon beam have been observed with a maximum of 1.18% between TRS-398 & TG-51, 1.56% between TG-51 & DIN, and 0.41% between DIN 6800-2 and TRS-398. For photon beam the uncertainty in dose measurement is about ± 0.57%. The deviation is observed higher while comparing TG-51 with other two protocols.



Armin Duraković1, Semir Fazlić2, Amar Nuhan1, Edib Avdić1

1Cantonal Hospital Zenica, Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina
2University Clinical Center Tuzla, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Section: Medical Physics

The most common parameter to check the proper working of CT and to estimate the patient dose in computed tomography is CT dose index (CTDI), which represents an averaged dose to a homogeneous cylindrical head and body phantom (16cm and 32 cm in diameter), this measurements are only approximation of the patient dose. However, in radiotherapy this parameter is measured to check the proper working  of CT simulator in general, because the dose for patient received during the simulation of radiotherapy treatment is significantly lower according to treatment dose.  Well calibrated CT by definition  has 0 HU for water and -1000 HU for air, and CTDI measurements usually are performing with 10cm pencil chamber in standard PMMA body and head phantom, which HU is relatively close to the water. Those measured CTDIs often are higher or lower than system calculated values  but within regulation-specified limit of ±20% for diagnostic radiology CT, unlike in radiotherapy CT simulator which should be within ±8%.  Comparison of CTDI measured on two CT simulators in standard PMMA and same dimension in-house fabricated phantom made of  MDPE (medium-density polyethylene) with HU number closer to water,  for investigated standard simulation protocols,shows decreasing difference between measured and system-calculated CTDI.




Roumen Georgiev1, Ivet Payanova2, Zdravka Spasova2, Ljupcho Iliev2, Stoyanka Georgieva2, Roumen Lazarov2

1Bulgarian Society of Med. Phys. and Biomed. Engineering, Sofia, Bulgaria
2Tokuda Hospital Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

Section: Medical Physics


To improve image registration accuracy by using markers on patients for head SRS treatment planning. Contour shifts were compared after image matching based on anatomy correspondence and markers superposition.

Materials and Methods

Ten patients with head localisations planned for radiosurgery were studied. Scanning procedures using skin markers were done on CT - GELightSpeed RT16, with 1.25mm slice thickness and MRI–GESigna 1,5T following AxT2 FRFSE, AxT1 and T2FLAIR, MRPerf Ax Dynamic SI C+ and Ax 3D T1 FSPGR. Image fusion of data sets was applied after anatomic landmark matching before target contouring. Alternatively image matching was also implemented by marker superposition. Translation and rotation corrections were calculated from markers’ displacement and applied in the matching procedure. Target anatomy contours obtained from both procedures were compared and contour shifts measured. These shifts were analyzed to find how the type of matching procedure would affect target contour displacement.

Results and Discussion

Coordinates of markers showed geometrical displacements (0.15cm - 0.35cm) in transverse direction and rotation angles (1.5 - 2.0 degree). These values were used for compensation in the image matching procedure, achieving visual correspondence of target anatomy after image fusion. Target contour displacement after applying both procedures were found to be within the range of 0–0.3cm.


The precise positioning and method using markers is essential to achieve good quality in the image matching, as well as the accuracy in the SRS. It could be improved with more than 1mm for the target and organs at risk, which makes the SRS treatment procedure itself more effective.

Keywords: Treatment planning protocol, Image fusion, External markers




Nikola Jovancevic1, Brankica Andjelic1, Milomir Milakovic2, Miodrag Krmar1

1Physics Department, University Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
2International Medical Center, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Section: Medical Physics

Knowledge of linear accelerator photon spectra can be very useful in standard dosimetry as well as in applications of advanced methods for dose calculation in therapy planning. Considering that high energies and intensities of therapy beams do not allow utilization of some standard photon spectroscopy techniques, a number of indirect measurement techniques were developed. Attenuation analysis is the simplest method for spectrum determination because the equipment existing in clinical environment is sufficient for measurement. A modified method for evaluation of bremsstrahlung spectra on the basis of transmission measurement using one single depth of several different attenuation materials is analyzed. Estimation of photon energy spectra is done by the use of standard unfolding technique, already well developed in the field of neutron activation measurements.    



Evgeniia Sukhikh1, Leonid Sukhikh2, Evgeniy Malikov2, Peter Filatov3

1Tomsk Regional Oncology Center, Tomsk, Russia
2Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
3Meshalkin Research Institute of Circulation Pathology, Novosibirsk, Russia

Section: Medical Physics

Purpose or Objective

Operation of any dosimeter assumes knowledge of the expected uncertainty that could be caused by different factors. The possible sources of uncertainty for Gafchromic EBT3 film were investigated (Phys. Med. v. 29(6), (2013) p. 599) where it was shown that the error amounted 0.55% neglecting local inhomogeneity of the film. The homogeneity of Gafchromic EBT2 film was investigated (Med. Phys. v. 37(4), (2010) p. 1753) and it was shown that inhomogeneity of absorbed dose amounted 6%. The purpose of current work is to calibrate Gafchromic EBT3 films using 10 MV photon beam, 6 MeV and 10 MeV electron beams and to estimate value of the measured absorbed dose uncertainty caused by the local inhomogeneity of the film.

Material and Methods

The calibration of Gafchromic EBT3 film was carried out using 10 MV photon beam and 10 MeV electron beam of Elekta Axesse linac, and also at 6 MeV electron beam using compact betatron for intraoperative therapy. In the case of Elekta Axesse the Farmer FC65-P cylindrical chamber and DOSE-1 electrometer were used. In the case of betatron we used the plane-parallel chamber PTW 23342 (Markus) and Unidose-E electrometer. The pieces of Gafchromic EBT3 film were irradiated by different doses up to 40 Gy resulted in calibration curves. Due to the fact that the films were irradiated by the uniform field it was possible to estimate local inhomogeneity. The obtained calibration curve allowed to calculate dose from the net optical density of the irradiated films. Using standard error propagation techniques it was possible to estimate calculated dose uncertainty.


The experimentally obtained dependences of reference dose on the film net optical density were fitted by the expression D=a NetOD +b NetOD^n (a,b,n are the free fit parameters). The comparison of calibration curves for different sources showed that the ones for 10 MeV electron beam and 10 MV photon beam coincide in the range (0.86-1.06) for the red channel and in the range (0.94-1.04) for the green channel depending on the value of net optical density. In the case of electron beams of different energies the coincidence is better for both channels. The values of obtained dose uncertainties lay within 5.5% for 6 MeV electron beam, 5% for 10 MeV electron beam and 7% for 10 MV photon beam (0.95 confidence interval).


The present work shows that homogeneity of the new generation of Gafchromic EBT3 film is better than previous generation one according to the measured dose uncertainty.




Stefan Rafajlović1, Gordan Nišević2

1Serbian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Belgrade, Serbia
2ORTHOAID, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Medical Physics

In current Rulebook on application of sources of ionizing radiaion in medicine brachytherapy as radiation therapy modality has not been recognized, and the parameters that should be checked before treatment, periodicaly and during radioactive source replacement has not been defined [1,2]. Bearing in mind that the primary goal of Qulity Assurance Programme is providing accurately and reliably functioning of mechanics, software and device containing radioactive source during planning and application of therapy in order to establish reliability of application of radioactive sources in this field in accordance to standards and to decrease risk of accidental situations [3,4], there is proposal of tests in this paper that should be conducted before each treatment, in determined time intervals and during the replacement of radioactive source in High Dose Rate brachytherapy (HDR). In three tables the following is defined: roles of personnel (radiaton oncologist, radiotherapy technician, nurse and/or medical physicist), time points of each staff member and means for performing tests. Beside brachytherapy device, Quality Assurance Programme covers both tretment planning system and corresponding simulator. Introducing of quality control and quality assurance in brachytherapy in legal framework should provide required preconditions  for establishing reproducible, safe and regular brachytherapy treatment.

[1] S. Rafajlovic, G. Nisevic, The need for introduction quality control and quality assurance in brachytherapy, Proceedings of the XXVIII Symposium of the Society for Radiation Protection of Serbia and Montenegro, 2015, ISBN 978-86-7306-135-1, pp. 424-427

[2] Rulebook on application of sources of ionizing radiation in medicine („Official Gazette of RS“, No. 1/12)  

[3] Lessons learned from accidental exposures in radiotherapy, IAEA Safety Report Series No. 17, IAEA, 2000

[4] Prevention of high-dose-rate brachytherapy accidents, ICRP Publication 97, ICRP, 2004



Yong Nam Kim1, Soo Kon Kim2

1Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon-do, Korea, South
2Kangwon National Universoty Hospital, Kangwon-do, Korea, South

Section: Medical Physics

 Both the accuracy and the speed of dose calculation are crucial a clinical field of radiation treatment. Our previous study showed that an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm have the potential to estimate an unknown point dose distribution after training with the known point data. In this study, application of ANN was extended to predict percent depth dose for a medium with unknown density. First of all, a step known as learning process is necessary. We considered the data set with the pairs of a point-wise dose and its position for training an ANN.  The percent depth doses were calculated using the commercial radiation treatment planning system of ECLIPSE (Varian, USA). The ANN was modeled using the Neural Network tool of MATLAB 7,0 (Mathworks, USA). It was constructed with the three layers including one hidden layer. The Levenberg-Marquardt method was considered introducing the second order differentiation of dose distribution as the feedback to the weight of the hidden unit of neural network. Considering the various densities such as 1.0[g/cc], 0.8[g/cc], 0.6[g/cc], 0.4[g/cc], and 0.2[g/cc], the obtained data was applied to train the ANN. The internal weights and thresholds were optimized using the cross validation method. The validated ANN was applied to estimate the PDD for the medium with the densities such as 1.1[g/cc], 0.9[g/cc], 0.7[g/cc], 0.5[g/cc], 0.3[g/cc], and 0.1[g/cc].  In order to examine an accuracy of dose estimation by the ANN, we compared the PDD estimated by ANN with that calculated by the ECLIPSE. For the most case of densities such as 0.9[g/cc], 0.7[g/cc], 0.5[g/cc], and 0,3 [g/cc], the PDD estimated by ANN was very close to that by ECLIPSE with the relative error less than 1%.  For both densities of 1.1[g/cc] and 0.1 [g/cc], the PDD estimation by ANN showed some different curves from that by ECLIPSE. As the depth is increased from the surface, the error was magnified.    Based on the obtained results, we can expect the ANN algorithm to apply for estimate PDD as far as interpolation is concerned. It indicates that we can develop a real-time estimation of PDD with the well trained ANN. Further careful investigation should be performed to solve the problem with dose extrapolation.



Firas Ghareeb1, Sofia Silva2, Joana Lencart2, Fatima Borges3, Joao Santos2

1Português de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil- EPE, Research Center, Porto, Portugal
2Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil- EPE, Medical Physics and Research Center, Porto, Portugal
3Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil- EPE, Medical Physics, Porto, Portugal

Section: Medical Physics

Purpose or Objective

The life expectancy of a child submitted to external radiotherapy is increasingly higher. The induction of secondary induced cancer is thus an increased concern during radiotherapy, and a minimization of future risk is being pursued. An estimate of scattered dose distribution and the evaluation of the most effective tools are mandatory.

Material and Methods

A 5-yr ATOM (CIRS) anthropomorphic phantom was irradiated using a standard 3DCRT radiotherapy three beam configuration. A cranio-caudal beam was employed in this irradiation. The plan was performed in Varian Eclipse v. 13.5 TPS, using the AAA algorithm. The plan was obtained within an extended calculation volume, taking the treatment couch into account in the calculations. The 2D scatter dose distributions at several planes away from the isocenter were measured using Gafcromic EBT3 radiochromic film, with a calibration curve at 24 hours, and compared with the calculated ones. Both dose distributions (scatter related) were compared at several distances from the isocenter (thyroid, lungs, abdomen and pelvis). To overcome the lack of film sensitivity at very low doses, the phantom was irradiated with 150 Gy (10x15 Gy) at isocenter.


The maximum measured doses per 1 Gy at isocenter (0 cm) were 8 mGy, 2 mGy, 0.7 mGy and 0.2 mGy at thyroid (14 cm), at lung (24 cm), at abdomen (39 cm) and at pelvis (49 cm) respectively. At the thyroid and lung levels, the calculated dose distributions differ considerably from the measured ones. At the thyroid level, for example, a maximum of dose is observed in the posterior region in the Gafchromic film while it shifts to the left side of the neck in the TPS dose distribution. There is a general trend for the measured dose to be higher than the calculated at these distances (> 50%) at some points, particularly where the cranio-caudal beam has left the body but is still near the surface of the phantom. Furthermore, the effect of the asymmetric cranio-caudal beam is evident in both calculated and measured dose planes, although yielding different results in both distributions.


For secondary induced cancer risk estimation, it seems evident from the results that the present TPS, even using a reliable algorithm as AAA, is not satisfactory for out-of-field dosimetry for all situations and must be considered with care. Specifically, the contribution from scattered radiation from air or objects outside the patient body does not seem to be properly considered by the TPS. Different tools, like Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are necessary if correct dose estimation must be obtained for risk models application. These preliminary results can lead to a further detailed measurements of out-of-field dose distribution in anthropomorphic phantoms and should be complemented by robust and validated MC simulations for the same beam geometries allowing the creation of a reliable tool capable of out of-field dose calculation.






Soumaya Boujamaa1, Hilde Bosmans2, Farida Bentayeb1

1Faculty of Science, Rabat, Morocco
2kU, Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Section: Medical Physics

The image quality and patient dose are a priority in X ray imaging, especially in mammography as the breast is a very radiosensitive organ. The challenge is to minimize patient dose while keeping an adequate image quality in order to make a good diagnosis.

The quality of the image depends on radiological parameters and exposure conditions. The main parameters involved are the anode-filtration couple materials, voltage X-ray tube (kVp), the current of the X-ray tube (mA) and the exposure time (s). The optimization of these parameters requires an estimation of lesion detectability for each exposure condition.

In the present work, measurements were carried out with a digital mammography. A dosimeter was used to quantify the dose delivered and breast thicknesses were simulated by a phantom using plaques of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA).

At the standard thickness of 40 mm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and according to exposure parameters used, the image quality is determined by the analysis of the contrast detail CDMAM phantom images, where threshold contrasts are calculated for different gold disc diameters. Results of the contrast threshold are compared with the acceptable and achievable norms adopted by the European guidelines. The contrast to noise ratio (CNR) is also calculated for all breast thicknesses required.

To determine the dose absorbed in the breast, the average glandular dose is calculated (ADG) stimulated by different thicknesses of PMMA and in compression plates. Different doses are obtained compared with the limits of acceptable and achievable doses recommended.

The results show that the average glandular dose values obtained and the threshold contrast visibility are within the norms set by the European Guide lines.



Kristina Bliznakova

Technical University of Varna, Varna, Bulgaria

Section: Medical Physics

Physical test phantoms are valuable tools in the assessment of novel breast imaging techniques. It is important that they reproduce the breast characteristics as close as possible. The Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Leuven has developed a physical phantom that produces a structured background in both 2D mammography and breast tomosynthesis. The phantom that consists of acrylic spheres placed in air and respectively in water. To improve further the existing physical phantom in terms of inclusion of breast lesions, use of other more appropriate materials or structure presentation different than the use of spheres, we started the development of a simulation platform that will allow the creation of software versions of this phantom with parameters (sizes, shapes, materials) that can be adjusted by the user.  This work presents results related to the use of this platform to generate software phantoms, dedicated for breast imaging research as well as for educational purposes.
Description of the phantom. The software (and the physical) phantom is composed of two main parts: an acrylic semi-cylinder container of thickness 58 cm and diameter 200 mm, and equal volumes of acrylic spheres of six different diameters: 15.88, 12.70, 9.52, 6.35, 3.18 and 1.58 mm. The software application, called LUCMRGen, samples the location of the spheres randomly in the semi-cylinder, starting from the spheres with largest diameter. As in the physical phantom, the total volume of each different sphere type was set to be equal (60806 mm³).
Projection images. X-ray projection images of the software phantom were obtained with the XRAYImagingSimulator using mammography setup. Images were simulated for monochromatic x-ray beam with energy of 19 keV. Scatter and detector responses were not simulated. Distances from the source to the breast support table, where the phantom was placed and to the detector surface were 600 mm and 650 mm, respectively. The size of the images and their resolution was 1200 pixels and 0.25 mm, respectively in each direction.

Simulated planar images of the software version were visually compared to images of the physical phantom filled with water and air. Real images are produced with Siemens Inspiration system, with distances from the source to the breast support table and to the detector equal to 633 mm and 650 mm.

Besides the research aspects of the software phantom, the software tool LUCMRGen  has turned out to be very useful tool for training of Medical Physics Experts. Specifically, the tool has been used in the training of the participants of module 5 “Anthropomorphic Phantoms” from the EUTEMPE-RX project (www.eutempe-rx.eu), related to qualification of Medical Physics Experts in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology.

The paper demonstrates the successful application and usability of complex and realistic breast software phantoms for breast imaging research and advanced training of Medical Physics Experts.



Anna Antsiferova1, Vyacheslav Demin1, Pavel Kashkarov1, Mikhail Kovalchuk2

1Moscow Institute of Physics and Technologies, Moscow region, Russia
2NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia

Section: Medical Physics

Silver has been known as an antiseptic agent from the ancient times. Thus, the Hospitallers used silver dishes and paid a lot of attention to hygiene. Nevertheless, Malta island, the place of their dislocation, was often attacked, but these important knowledge has been the base of the knight’s survival.

Today antibacterial,antiviral ad fungicidal properties of silver are used in various medical and industrial applications. As a rule, such commercial producton is based on silver in nanoform. First of all, nanosilver is less toxic than silver ions and more sufficient than silver in the bulk. It is widely spread in Alternative medicine to use nanosilver as daily food supplement, which is especially important problem.

From the other point of view, there are many scientific works demonsrating negative effectos of nanosilver. It is shown that such nanoparicles can be toxic for mammal organisms as well. Inducing reactive oxygen species they lead to cell metabolism disturbance, genetic changes and finally to apoptosis an necrosis of mammal cells. Moreover, silver nanoparticles can accumulate in different organs and tissues having long-time effects.

Biokinetcs studies are much more complicated and less common in Nanoscience than toxicological investigtions of such nanoparticles. In the present work the most sensitive and precious Nuclear Physical technique, namely Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, was used to study prolonged up to 6 months daily administration biokinetics and elimination processes of silver nanoparticles performed by commercial food supplement in white mice organisms.

Activity normalization to average neutron flux in active zone of nuclear reactor was suggested in order to obtain statistically valid data. The main idea of such normalization is in averaging of neutron flux over activities of biophilic element selenium, which is constantly redistributed among the mice of the same age grown uner the same conditions. Half-life of the key silver and selenium radioactive isotopes are quite long, which gives a possibility to conduct gamma spectrometry measurements in a proper time.

Thus, in this work experimental data of prolonged administration biokinetics as well as biokinetics of the elimination processes of silver nanoparticles were obtained which is in an excellent agreement with Analytical Chamber Model proposed here either.

The main result of this work is the discovery of accumulation of silver in mice brain in quite cytotoxic amounts. This fact demonstrates that food supplements based on nanosilver may lead to unknown hazardous effects for humans and the environment. The next step will be in study of cognitive changes of such mice exposed to nanosilver for a long period, which is also highly important to know as a possible long-time effect of nanosilver.

The work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (grant № RFMEFI57514X0072)




Evgeniia Sukhikh1, Indira Khassenova 2, Leonid Sukhikh2, Evgeniy Malikov2

1Tomsk Regional Oncology Center, Tomsk, Russia
2Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia

Section: Medical Physics


The use of the film when it is parallel to the beam axis allows to obtain depth distribution of the dose in water during “single shot” of the accelerator. This method could be useful for characterization of the electron beams of intraoperative accelerators due to the fact that for this modality one needs precise knowledge of the dose depth curve starting from the phantom surface. The use of ionization chamber is routine technique but the spatial resolution of the measured curve is worse. The purpose of this work is to compare depth dose curves obtained using Gafchromic EBT3 film and ionization chamber during experimental investigation and Monte-Carlo simulation.

Material and Methods

The experimental comparison of the depth dose curves was carried out using 6 MeV and 9 MeV electron beams of Elekta Synergy accelerator and 6 MeV electron beam generated by compact betatron for intraoperative therapy. The dose distributions were measured by ionization chambers in the water and by Gafchromic EBT3 films in solid phantoms. The film was situated in different geometries, namely along beam axis and across it. The simulation of the process was carried out using PCLab software that allows simulation of the beam interaction with the matter.The first geometry was absorbed dose distribution in pure water that was assumed to be an ideal case. The second geometry assumed film situated along beam axis.The third geometry simulated ionization chamber depth scan. The simulation was carried out for different beam energies assuming monoenergetic beams. In the case of water and film in water it was possible to simulate directly value of dose in water or in the film sensitive layer. In the case of ionization chamber the value of energy lost in the air volume was “measured” as a quantity proportional to dose in water.


Results of the simulation and measurement show that the dose depth distributions obtained for water, film and ionization chamber coincides well at depths deeper than maximum dose. In the case of depths from the surface up to maximum the dose “measured”  by ionization chamber is larger than the dose “measured” by the film and simulated in pure water. The experimental investigation of the depth dose distribution also shows that ionization chamber overestimates dose values at small depths.


Simulation and measurement results show that depth dose distribution from electron beam in water measured by radiochromic film is more precise at small depths than the one measured by ionization chamber.



Sergey Stepanov1, Vsevolod Byakov2, Yurii Perfiliev3, Leonod Kulikov3

1National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow, Russia
2Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russia
3Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemical Department, Moscow, Russia

Section: Medical Physics

Chemical carcinogens are now considered as the main cause of cancer. Usually they are electrophiles, possessing high electron affinity. We have shown that positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) can detect chemical carcinogens by means of inhibition of positronium (Ps) atom formation in liquid media under the presence of dissolved carcinogens. The suggested method is based on the following facts:

- majority of chemical carcinogens are strong electrophiles. These are the substances with high electron affinity [1];

- after being dissolved in liquid cyclohexane, chemical carcinogens are currently characterized through their very high reaction ability towards the numerous track electrons produced in the solvent under the action of ionizing radiation [2];

- positronium, which appear in a condensed molecular milieu (including cyclohexane) under irradiation by fast positrons, are formed as a result of the combination of thermalised positrons and intratrack electrons. Thus, electrophilic carcinogens, dissolved in the milieu, will intercept thermalized track electrons (Ps precursors), efficiently inhibit Ps formation [3]. Available biophysical data indicate that similar experiments can be carried out in frozen media (fro example, in ice along with studies of liquid aqueous solutions), which may efficiently simulate an intracellular environment. So Emission Mössbauer Spectroscopy (EMS) can be used for identification of chemical carcinogens as well. It allows to determine the final output of the charge states of 57Fe2+ and 57Fe3+ ions, formed in reactions with secondary thermalized electrons in the Auger blob [4]. Therefore, EMC and PAS can be considered as complementary methods in screening of chemical carcinogens.


[1] E.C. Miller  Cancer Res. 38, 1479 (1978)

[2] G.E. Bakale, R.D. McCreary, E.C. Gregg  Cancer Biochem. Biophys. 5 103 (1981)

[3] V.M. Byakov, S.V. Stepanov, O.P. Stepanova.  Phys. Stat. Solidi C, 2009, 6(11), 2503-2506.

[4] S.V. Stepanov, V.M. Byakov, Yu.D. Perfilev, L.A. Kulikov  Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Physics, 77(6), pp. 770–774 (2013).



Renata Longo1, Renato Padovani2, Luciano Bertocchi2

1University of Trieste and INFN, Trieste, Italy
2ICTP International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy

Section: Medical Physics

The University of Trieste (Italy) and the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP, Trieste, Italy) have initiated in 2014 a Master of Advanced Studies in Medical Physics (www.ictp.it/programmes/mmp.aspx), a two-years training programme, co-sponsored by the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS).

The Master Programme is designated to provide young promising graduates in physics, mainly from developing countries, with a post-graduated theoretical and clinical training suitable to be recognised as Clinical Medical Physicist in their countries. Every year participants from Africa, South America, Asia, Europe and Midle East have been selected among more than 700 applicants. During the first three academic years 47 students have been enrolled: 18 from Africa, 14 from Latin America, 10 from Asia and 5 from East Europe.

The University of Trieste and the ICTP, a UNESCO educational institution with training initiatives in the area of medical, have developed the Master programme according to the recommendations of International Organization of Medical Physics (IOMP) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the education and the clinical training. The first year of the Master Programme in Medical Physics consists of basic and advanced courses and practical given by experts in these fields. The second year is spent in a medical physics department of the hospitals’ network for a full time clinical training in radiotherapy, diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation protection.

IOMP and IAEA are seeing this initiative as an answer to the growing demand of Medical Physicists in developing countries. Full or partial scholarships are awarded to successful candidates from developing countries, thanks to the support of the IAEA, TWAS, IOMP, EFOMP and ICTP. 





Abdel-Hai Benali

physics, El-oued, Algeria, Algeria

Section: Medical Physics

The aim of this study was to compare the energy dependence of three kind of luminescent detectors without filter, RPL glass dosimeter GD-301 with TLD LiF:Mg,Ti and OSL Al2O3:C dosimeters.

In  this  work, a Monte Carlo simulation with MCNP5 was carried out to estimate the energy responses  of these dosimeters. The following common clinical radiation qualities were applied: 6 -15 MV photons, 50-200 kVp X-rays, 192 Ir gamma rays, and 60 Co gamma rays as the reference.

In this study, for MV photons we found that the energy responses were approximately 2.6 % for GD-301 and Al2O3:C dosimeters and 1% for TLD-100 dosimeter. For 192 Ir gamma rays were found to be within 22 %, 15.2 % and 1% for RPL glass dosimeter, OSL and TLD respectively. In kilovoltage photon beams, the dosimeters displayed an increasing response with decreasing energy with a significant over response of GD-301 and Al2O3:C about 352% and 278% respectivelly, and a maximum of about 11.2 % at 50 kVp for TLD-100.

In conclusion, the dosimeters GD-301 and Al2O3:C (without filter) are used in high energy photon beams such as in radiotherapy, whereas the TLD-100 detector in medium and high energy.

Keyword: Luminescent detectors, GD-301, TLD-100, Al2O3:C, Monte Carlo simulation, MCNP5.



Meriem Fiak1, Jamal Inchaouh2

1Hassan II University, Faculty of Science Ben M’sik, Casablanca, Morocco
2University Hassan II, Casablanca, Morocco

Section: Medical Physics

High-energy linear accelerator (linac) is a valuable tool and the most commonly used device for external beam radiation treatments in cancer patients. In the linac head, high-energy photons with energies above the threshold of (γ,n) interaction produce photoneutrons. These photoneutrons deliver the extra dose to staff and the patients undergoing radiation treatment and increase the risk of secondary cancer. Owing to the limitation and complication of experimental neutron dosimetry in mixed beam environment, including photon and neutron, the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is a gold standard method for calculation of photoneutron contaminations. On the other hand, the complexity of treatment head makes the MC simulation more difficult and time-consuming.

In this study, the possibility of using a simplified MC model for the simulation of treatment head will be investigated using Geant4-Gate code to calculate the neutron and the secondary gamma ray energy spectra and the dose equivalents at various points inside the treatment room and along the maze. As a part of comparative assessment strategy, we’ll compared our results with those evaluated by the recommended analytical methods, and with experimental and simulated values published in the literature. After validation,the shielding effects of various neutron material shields on the radiotherapy room wall will be also investigated in order to find the material having enough efficiency to reduce both neutron and secondary gamma ray doses.

Keywords:  Radiotherapy ; Accelerator ; Photoneutrons; Monte Carlo simulation ; Dose 



Sergei Voychuk, Elena Gromozova, Valentin Pidgorskiy

Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology of NASU, Kiev, Ukraine

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

Polysaccharides are important structural elements of all live organisms. A lot of them have a commercial potential in various biotechnological processes and they perform a set of functions among which is a chemical and physical stresses resistance. These are a very labile cellular fraction that changes in respond to the environmental perturbations and thus can be good indicators of biological action of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields.

Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were used to study the action of RF EMF pretreatment on the cell wall polysaccharide (CW PS) composition changes under action of chemical stresses. Hydrogen peroxide (25-100mM), acetic acid (25-100mM) and osmotic shock (sorbitol 0.25-1.0M) were used to cause changes in the CW PS composition. Stresses were applied after 30 min exposure to radiofrequency EMF (40.68 MHz, 15W power, 30 min). Effect of EMF was evaluated by changes in the CW PS quantity detected by the lectin-gold binding test. Experimental design and analysis of results were carried out by central composite design (alpha for rotatability was 1.68 and alpha for orthogonality was 1.29). The lectins, conjugated to gold nanoparticles, with the affinity to D-mannose and D-glucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) were used.

Yeast cell walls were showed to contain 49% of D-mannose and D-glucose of which 1.7% was in alpha form and others were in beta form, 25% of GlcNAc and 24% of GalNAc, 1.2% of D-galactose and 0.1% of Neu5Ac. The minor components of the CW PS showed the most variability (over 40%) in respond to the stresses action, while the variability of the major components was low (5-10%). The osmotic shock and acetic acid were main factors affecting the total content of CW PS (38.9 and 17.6 unites, correspondingly) and the content of minor components (alpha forms of D-mannose and D-glucose, D-galactose), while hydrogen peroxide caused slight effect on the content of beta-forms of D-mannose and D-glucose (-2.2 un.), GlcNAc (2.3 un.) and GalNAc (2.4 un.). RF EMF changed a dose-dependent effect of hydrogen peroxide on GlcNAc and GalNAc from negative to positive and correspondingly the effects of acetic acid and osmotic shock became opposite. These results indicate that pretreatment with RF EMF does affect the CW PS content changes under the chemical stresses and that CW PS is a sensitive marker of biological action of non-ionizing EMFs. The opposite character of CW PS composition changes may be a result of necessity of cellular adaptation to an increased outer membrane permeability that occurs under this type of EMF treatment. 




2University of Medicine and Pharmacy, CLUJ-NAPOCA, Romania
4National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, CLUJ-NAPOCA, Romania

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

Due to steep progression of radiofrequency (RF) radiation applications,this paper aims to stimulate medical practitioners,from a practical perspective,to learn more about RF exposure, health/biological effects, health risk assessment and to advise main actors from companies to apply a better management strategy in this field.

Based on their research experrise the authors propose a health risk assessment model in chronic RF exposure,with main stages:

1.Electromagnetic characterization of work environment.2. Experimental studies in vivo,on laboratory animals (targeting immune system behaviour and oxidative stress)3. Occupational clinical studies wathching : possible genotoxic effects,specific questionaire for exposure related organic symptoms,identification of possible markers for exposure and biological effects 4. RF management strategy design.

As a basis of discussion for this strategy is the recent European Directive for electromagnetic fields (Directive EU/35/2013).A good management plan in occupational RF exposure can help to put into perspective the relative risk of RF exposure and in the same time can provide valuable information about exposure and health effects.The strategy will contribute to identifying of the RF electromagnetic sources and work practices that present likelihood of overexposure ,dealing with any special situation that may occur.




Zorica Podrascanin, Zoran Mijatovic, Ana Firanj

University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Novi Sad, Serbia

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

We studied trends of UV index at the city of Novi Sad (latitude 45.3N, longitude 19.8 E at the 80m height) for time period 2004-2013. The measurements of UV index were performed with Yankee Environmental System (YES) UVB-1 piranometer. Linear regression method was used to calculate trends of UV index. Yearly trend of UV index from relative monthly differences considered with climatological value were investigated. We obtain yearly UV trend of about 8% per decade at the location of Novi Sad. Further on, the monthly UV trends were investigated. We obtained significant positive trends in April, August, October and December, with no significant negative UV trends.




Jordan Pop-Jordanov, Nada Pop-Jordanova, Biljana Gjoneska

Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje, Macedonia

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations


Introduction: Mobile phones are the most used tools in the last decades, related to EMF technologies.

There is unsuspected benefit of this fast, exact and worldwide used electronic device. Unfortunately, as many other modern tools, mobile phones can induce some effects on human brain functioning.

Aim: The review of most important articles devoted to mobile phone influence on the brain function serves as a short-cut across a half-decade old research gap, and a clear-cut analysis on the cutting-edge knowledge of EMF induced EEG changes.

Material and Methods: The selection covers 28 articles about mobile phone effects on resting wakeful EEG in humans conducted over the last two decades, across three continents and 11 countries, of which 72% had positive findings.

Conclusions: At present, the general protocol of a typical study includes investigations on adults (20-60 yrs.) grouped in smaller samples and exposed to shorter intervals of GSM-like pulse-modulated signal (10-30 subjects/minutes). The assessment usually involves linear methods for quantitative analysis, while the results mostly revolve around posterior increase in alpha and beta frequency range. The qualitative variations, however, remain open to interpretation. Future research may benefit from multiplication of sub-specific studies leading to replication of more consistent results. The long-term and large-size epidemiologic studies, stratified by age and gender, may also improve the expected outcomes. Regarding the interpretation, non-linear methods could be employed for assessment of individual variations. The emphasis should be placed on theories/measures for better understanding of the subtle interplay between the spectral individualities and mobile phone radiation specifics.


Key words: Mobile phones; electromagnetic fields; pulse-modulated and continuous-wave signal; human wake resting electroencephalogram







Anibal Aguirre

Research and Development Institute for Defense, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

This well demonstrated by high scale measurement campaigns, that  20% of total  of electromagnetic field level that citizens are exposed ; come from mobile systems (Base stations and mobiles). Overall, average exposure levels for a big city are below 5V/m, while you need approximately 1 mV/m, for a mobile phone normal operation.

As it is easy and economical, the use of broadband measurement instruments is very common. It’s important to take account that their sensitivity is on the order of 1V/m, then it is so difficult to identify which is the real contribution of the mobile phone system. But the most important error source, in non-ionizing radiation measurement, is the electromagnetic noise level outside the band of interest. Simple noise power integration at frequencies below AM Broadcast Systems plus noise power integration at frequencies above mobile phone bands, will result in values two magnitude order higher than the real radiated field from the mobile phone system.

The present work will show the level of these errors, an alternative to minimize, and as current discussion of exposure guidelines is related to a correct non Ionizing Radiation measurement procedure.



Michel Israel1, Ivanka Topalova2, Tsvetelina Shalamanova2, Mihaela Ivanova2, Victoria Zaryabova2

1National Center of Public Health and Analyses, Medical University - Pleven, Sofia, Bulgaria
2National Center of Public Health and Analyses, Sofia, Bulgaria

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

In the framework of the project BG07 Program: "Initiatives for public health." measurements and exposure assessment of electromagnetic fields (EMF) levels in populated areas were planned. To fulfill the requirements set in the project measurements should be carried out in places "with a high density of EMF sources" as well as "the existence of a sensitive buildings and places", which have led to development of methods for selection of measurement points in urban areas.

The developed methods are based on two approaches for selection - controlled and randomized.

The first method of "controlled method for selection and designation of points of measurements and evaluation of the electromagnetic field in populated areas" requires preliminary information about the location of the emitters, and electronic geographical map as well.

The second method "Selection of points for measurement and assessment of EMF in "sensitive buildings and places" requires information in advance concerning the location of sensitive buildings and places for particular region, no information for the emitters and distribution on the field is necessary.

The report presents results of measurements in locations determined using two methods for the selection of points for measurement of EMF in urban areas.



Mihaela Ivanova1, Tsvetelina Shalamanova1, Michel Israel2, Victoria Zaryabova1, Hristina Petkova1

1National Center of Public Health and Analyses, Sofia, Bulgaria
2National Center of Public Health and Analyses, Medical University - Pleven, Sofia, Bulgaria

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

The purpose of this study is to perform an exposure assessment of magnetic field in apartment buildings with built-in transformer rooms located throughout the Sofia city. This study was a part of the International project TRANSEXPO which aim was to find the epidemiologic association between extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and childhood leukemia.

The paper presents results of measurements of power frequency electric (EF) and magnetic field (MF) performed in 43 randomly identified from all regions of Sofia buildings with built-in transformers. In each building, measurements were made in the following types of apartments: apartments that have rooms directly above and next to the transformer; apartments selected on the same floor as the one directly above and next to the transformer; apartments on the upper floors randomly selected among all the other apartments of the building. Measurements were performed also inside the transformer rooms for exposure assessment of the personnel responsible for the technical maintenance of the stations.

The measurement results show clear difference among the magnetic field values measured in every one of the three categories of apartments, respectively 0,4 µT for the “exposed” apartments 0,23 µT on the same floor, and 0,1 µT on other floors. The electric fields strengths do not show dependence on the apartment’s category.

The measured values of magnetic flux densities inside the transformer stations are in the range: 0.56 mT to 60 µT and depend on measurement location. The highest values are found at low voltage section of the transformer station. The electric field strengths measured inside the transformer stations are up to 208 V/m.

The exposure assessment in the buildings with built-in transformer stations shows that the apartments can be reliably categorized as an exposed, low exposed or unexposed based on their location to the transformer stations.

The measured values in transformer rooms are in compliance with limit values according to the National legislation and Directive 2013/35/EC (ICNIRP 2010).


KEYWORDS: Exposure Assessment, Transformer, Built-In, Magnetic Field, electric field, Measurement



Tsvetelina Shalamanova, Mihaela Ivanova, Rumiana Petrova, Ivanka Topalova, Petya Ivanova, Magdalena Dimitrova

National Center of Public Health and Analyses, Sofia, Bulgaria

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

Bulgaria completed the process of digitization of broadcast system, regarding to the Directive 2002/21/ EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 March 2002, in September 2013. The aim of this report is to present exposure assessment of EMF emitted from broadcast transmitters, after the digitalization of the equipment. The paper presents an exposure assessment procedure of electromagnetic field (EMF) for TV and radio transmitters.

Calculation methods were used for a theoretical evaluation of the hygienic safety zone. The exposure assessment was made using non-selective and selective methods for measuring the EMF values.

The measured values of the electric field and power density in the regions of the emitters show compliance with the national legislation for protection of general public from RF EMF exposure. Higher values were measured in the close proximity of the facility where access of the general public is not permitted, so places where limit values for controlled (working) environment are applicable.



KEYWORDS: EMF, digitalization, exposure assessment, broadcast, limit values



Alexander Guridov1, Elena Deshevaya1, Sergei Shashkovsky2, Dmitriy Zakharenko3, Natalia Khamidullina3, Natalia Novikova1

1Institute of Biomedical Problems, Moscow, Russia
2Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow, Russia
3Lavochkin Association, Roscosmos, Khimki, Russia

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

Planetary protection or planetary quarantine (PQ) is a key issue in context of remote space exploration. The danger of the terrestrial life transfer to other space bodies motivates studies with the end goal of minimizing the risks of microbiological contamination of solar planets. To cope with this problem in the ExoMars-2018 project, an antimicrobial strategy must be defined and a program of planetary quarantine procedures crucial for the success of the mission to Mars must be substantiated.

Purpose of the effort was testing a laboratory model of no-heat decontaminating unit (NHDU) and its regimes for microbial control of air and surfaces within an ExoMars-2018 landing module (LM). Laboratory NHDU is outfitted with a xenon lamp generating radiation that reaches the target at 20 cm distance. An average bactericidal flux to target is 22 W/cm2 with the UV pulsed power of 300 kW/cm2.

NHDU was tested in experiments performed to detect resistant bacterial and fungal strains and to identify the most effective doses for elimination of the microorganisms isolated from samples collected at the Baikonur technological complex. Highly resistant bacterial and fungal strains were used to measure the antimicrobial effect of the continuous spectrum of the UV lamp.

Permeability of various transparent packaging media for pulsed UV radiation was evaluated. In view of the low polymers permeability for UV radiation, we sought for a technology of the best possible decontamination of packaged objects with a vapor-delivered disinfectant (ethanol, peroxide, isopropanol) and simultaneous exposure to pulsed UV radiation.

As a result it was shown that laboratory NHDU is capable to decontaminate very effectively objects wrapped in a high-pressure polyethylene film. The experiments demonstrated that the combination of hydrogen peroxide vapor and pulsed UV produces the most evident effect on resistant microbial strains (above 99.99 %).



Nataša Đorđević1, Jovan Vuković2, Aleksandar Peulić3, Andraš Štajn2, Milica Paunović2, Edin Dolićanin4, Zana Dolićanin1

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, State University of Novi Pazar, Novi Pazar, Serbia
2Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia
3Faculty of engineering, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia
4Department of Technical Sciences, State University of Novi Pazar, Novi Pazar, Serbia

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

OBJECTIVE: In recent years, the mean level of low-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF), have progressively increased. Several studies have concluded that EMF may be linked to the disturbance of neuroendocrine activity of the organism. The present study has investigated the potential effects of extremely low frequency (ELF-EMF, 50 Hz) exposure on the rats behavior.

STUDY DESING: Ten experimental rats (Wistar albino) were arranged in two groups: control group - without exposure to EMF and experimental group - exposed to 50 Hz EMF for 7 days. After exposure, effects of nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress in the hypothalamus on the emergence of anxious behavior of rats were examined. The behavior of rats exposed to EMF was monitored by application of elevated plus-maze test and open field test, while the levels of NO and oxidative stress parameters in hypothalamus were estimated by measuring the concentration of superoxide anion radicals (O2•-), nitrite (NO2-) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-).

RESULTS: The obtained results show that ELF-EMF exposure decreased mobility of the rats and increased time spent in the closed arms of plus-maze and at the periphery of open field compared to control group.  Also, seven days exposure to ELF-EMF increased the concentrations of O2•- and NO2- in hypothalamus.

CONCLUSION: The main findings of this study were that exposure to ELF-EMF induces anxiety development in rats through increasing NO concentration in hypothalamus.



Anna A. Oleshkevich, Svetlana A. Komarova

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education, Moscow, Russia

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

UV spectrophotometric method based on the ability of solutions of different substances absorb different wavelengths of light at different intensities. As a result, determine the absorption spectrum, characteristic of the substance. The main constituents of the animal hair is the protein keratin, characterized by a high content of sulfur in its composition. Absorption at 250-300 nm determined by the presence within proteins of aromatic amino acids in the region 230-300 nm - sulfur containing amino acid. UV spectrophotometry method is characterized by high sensitivity. With this method it is possible to identify even small amounts of the substance in a multicomponent system and use this technique to identify the species of animal hair.



Natalia Statsyuk1, Khyal Thakur2, Smetanina Tatiana1, Maria Kuznetsova1

1All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology, Bolshie Vyazemy, Russia
2Tuberosum Technologies Inc., Broderick, Canada

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

Due to the increasing pesticide press, the problem of crop improvement by environmentally friendly methods becomes to be more and more relevant for the world agriculture. Possible ways to solve this problem are the breeding of more resistant and productive cultivars, application of biopesticides and biostimulators, and the use of various physical fields for a stimulating treatment of seeds. The technology of a pre-planting treatment of seed material with low-frequency pulse electric field (PEF) developed at the All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology has already proved its stimulating effect concerning seeds of some crops. In this study the effect of the pre-planting PEF treatment of tubers has been assessed in relation to several plant characteristics, such as the plant height, number of stems per a plant, number of leaves per a stem, fresh weight of foliage, and number and weight of generated tubers per a plant. Field trials were performed in the Saskachewan province of Canada and included nine potato cultivars. The pre-planting treatment was carried out using a PEF generator providing a low-frequency high-voltage pulse electric field with a complex amplitude-frequency spectrum close to that of natural fields. The working signal was characterized by a frequency 16 ± 10% kGz, modulated with a meander-shape sequence of bipolar impulses (150-300 Gz). The exposure time was 24 h (earlier determined optimum time for the treatment of potato). The time between the treatment and planting did not exceed 7 days. The trials demonstrated a reliable positive effect of the PEF treatment on the number of stems and the total number and weight of tubers per a plant. The averaged increase of these parameters in treated plants makes 24.65, 29.93, and 37.55%, respectively. Concerning other parameters (plant height, number of leaves, and fresh weight of foliage), the obtained data did not allow us to conclude about any stable positive or negative effect of such treatment on these parameters. The results agree with the data of other authors worked with various electrical fields on potato.




Maria Kuznetsova, Natalia Statsyuk, Alexander Rogozhin, Alexey Filippov

All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology, Bolshie Vyazemy, Russia

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

High productivity of agricultural crops is one of the crucial factors characterizing the efficiency of agricultural industry. Many cultivars of agricultural crops demonstrate a high productivity potential during their trials, but not under field conditions that can be caused by insufficient adaptation potential of a cultivar to the ecological and climatic conditions of a region of its cultivation. The possible solution includes either the improvement of the environment to provide more favorable conditions for the plant development (use of fertilizers, protective treatments, and other agrotechnical measures), or the stimulation of a plant development using various chemical, physical, or biological methods. In the case of Russia, where the majority of territories belong to the zones of risky agriculture, the second way seems to be the most relevant and efficient. Today there are many chemical and microbial preparations stimulating the growth and development of plants. The range of developed physical stimulation methods is rather narrow, and the majority of them were tested only under laboratory conditions. At the same time, seed treatment with physical fields has all advantages of green technologies, and able to provide stable crop increase and quality improvement.

In this study we assessed the effect of a pre-planting treatment of seed material with low-frequency pulse electric field (PEF) on the yield increase of several agricultural crops, including potato (cv. Latona), cabbage (cv. Novator), onion (cv. Red Spark), red beet (cv. Ruzhet), and carrot (cv. Abliko). The pre-planting treatment of seeds was carried out using a PEF generator providing a low-frequency high-voltage pulse electric field, which distinctive feature is a complex amplitude-frequency spectrum close to that of natural fields. The output signal was characterized by a frequency of 16 ± 10% kGz, modulated with a meander-shape sequence of bipolar impulses (150-300 Gz). The exposure time varied within 1-24 h depending on the crop. The period between the treatment and planting did not exceed 7 days. Field trials were arranged at the fields of the Fruhtring agricultural company (Moscow region, Russia). For each crop, the total planting area of treated or untreated variant was 3-5 hectares; the size of experimental plots was 15-50 m2 depending on the crop; the plots were randomly located on the field. Each variant was tested in three replications.

According to the results of two-year trials, the pre-planting PEF treatment increased yield in all crops. The averaged increase (%) made 10.4 (potato), 13.4 (cabbage), 27.6 (onion), 11.7 (red beet), and 15.6 (carrot). The obtained results confirmed the efficiency of the proposed technology as a simple and ecologically safe tool to provide a stable and significant increase in the crop capacity of different vegetable crops.



Svetlana A. Komarova, Anna A. Oleshkevich

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education , Moscow, Russia

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

The UV spectrophotometry method is based on the ability of biological solutions to absorb light with different intensities under various conditions and wavelengths. As a result, we can determine the absorption spectrum, characterizing each substance. One of the main ingredient of animal hair is keratin. This protein has high sulfur content in its composition. The presence of aromatic amino acids of proteins determines the light absorption in the region of 250-300 nm. In the 230-300 nm absorb light sulfur-containing amino acids. The UV spectrophotometry method applied demonstrated high sensitivity. It was possible to identify even small amounts of the substance in a multicomponent biological system. We have been successful using this technique to identify the species of animal hair.



Svetlana A. Komarova1, Anna A. Oleshkevich2

1State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology by K.I. Scriabin, Moscow, Russia, Moscow, Russia
2State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology by K.I. Skryabin, Moscow, Russia, Moscow, Russia

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

The UV spectrophotometry method is based on the ability of biological solutions to absorb light with different intensities under various conditions and wavelengths. As a result, we can determine the absorption spectrum, characterizing each substance. One of the main ingredients of animal hair is keratin. This protein has high sulfur content in its composition. The presence of aromatic amino acids of proteins determines the light absorption in the region of 250–300 nm. In the 230–300 nm absorb light sulfur-containing amino acids. The UV spectrophotometry method applied demonstrated high sensitivity. Groups of animals with whom we have worked, ground the concepts of this method: 1. Sheep home – Ovis orientalis aries, Karakul breed, Russia, 2 females and 2 males. 2. Red Deer – Cervus elaphus, 3 males and 2 females, Russia, Caucasus. 3. Reindeer – Rangifer tarandus, 2 males and 2 females, Russia. 4. Spotted deer – Cervus nippon, 1 female and 4 males, Russia, Caucasus. 5. Black Celebes Crested Macaque – Cynopithecus nyger, 2 females and 1 male, South Asia. 6. Siberian roe deer – Capreolus pygargus, 2 females and 2 males, Mongolia. 7. European Mink –Mustela lutreola, 3 males and 3 females, Russia, Moscow region. 8. The Amur tiger – Pantera tigris altaica, 3 males and 3 females, Khabarovsk, Russia. 9. Seal – Pusa sibirica, 1 female and 2 males of. Baikal, Russia. 10. Polar Bear – Ursus maritimus, 1 male and 3 females, Russia. 11. Fox silver–black cell breeding – Vulpes vulpes, 3 males and 3 females, Moscow region, Russia. 12. Arctic fox – Alopex lagopus, 2 males and 1 female, Russian. All the hair was taken from the animals withers. It was possible to identify even small amounts of the substance in a multicomponent biological system. We have been successful using this technique to identify the species of animal hair.



Milesa Srećković1, Slađana Pantelić2, Srbislav Stanković3, Suzana Polić4, Aleksander Kovačević5, Nenad Ivanović6, Aleksandar Bugarinović7, Stanko Ostojić8, Željka Tomić9

1Faculty of Electrical Engineernig, Belgrade, Serbia
2Faculty of Electrical Engneering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
3Institute for Nuclear Sceinces , ,
4Central Institute for Conservation, Belgrade, Serbia
5Institute of physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
6Institute of Nuclear Sciences , ,
7Telekom Srpske, Bijeljina, Bosnia and Herzegovina
8Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
9High Technical School Tehnikum Taurunum, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

The scope of application of elion techniques in modern civilization is large, and still increase. New devices are being developed, which emit defined beams of nuclear particles (protons, neutrons) and radiation, but also ionic beams, in a large diapason of energies and intensities from "classical acceleration" devices, from defined chemical reactions, etc.

Nowadays, plasma processes may also be classified as elion techniques (electron, laser, ion, and neutron). Another approach to unification of beam techniques would include acoustic waves as well. The result of interaction of today`s powerful laser beams and production of a series of harmonics would lead to the field with X and gamma photons, while processes with condensed and gaseous state of water would lead to forming of a series of particles, so laser could generally also be used as a source of various ions, isotopes from defined interactions, including plasma processes, production of acoustic processes, etc. The degree of present application, as well as application in the near or far future, depends on the complexity of technical systems where this is experimentally achieved.

The paper discusses several issues concerning application of irradiation with suitable already applicable methods, which for years have been the practice of many teams for the purpose of detailed studying of effects of various irradiations on materials (here the accent is on gamma irradiation) and assessment of principal changes caused by them.

Special attention is paid to the dosimetric side of the experiments, with a discussion of possible effects on interpretation of the references, if principles of proper assessment are not respected. This dosimetric part shall be viewed also as a dosimetric approach with laser (irradiators) and with parts of dosimetry where care should be taken of overlapping and differences (of dosimetry in nuclear technique and laser dosimetry).

The part concerning experimental work with electronic beams discusses the properties of the coupling or scathing of materials and the heat affected zone – HAZ and discusses the relation with LAZ. As for cultural heritage, there is an analysis of possible uses with nuclear irradiation (disinfection), and, as for laser beams, it seems that at least in smaller surfaces nuclear particles could be successfully removed from surface layers with their control.

Small areas (or dimensions of materials) certainly present smaller problems, but in larger ones the geometry of irradiation should be set sensibly, as well as assessment of exposition with differentiating various dose types.

Some scathing shall be discussed, caused by beams of particles and laser, and claims concerning changes of material properties, of which the objects of cultural heritage, or others of interest, are subjected to elions technique in comparison to other solutions, including mechanical ones, etc.



Avni Berisha1, Blerina Baxhaku1, Nardi Sheqerxhiu2, Ahmet Hoxha2, Nimet Orqusha3, Jeton Halili1, Valbonë Mehmeti1, Kaltrina Jusufi1, Adelina Halili1

1UP, Department of Chemistry, Pristina, Kosovo
2Trepharm, Pristina, Kosovo
3UP, Department of Pharmacy, Pristina, Kosovo

Section: Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

Alprazolam is widely prescribed sedative and antidepressant benzodiazepine (BDZ) drug. Chemically known as {8- chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-4H-s-triazolo(4,3-a) (1,4)benzodiazepine} and it belongs to the class of anxiolytic, sedative and hypnotic anticonvulsant. It is believed that alprazolam (ALP) is more fairly safe and it rapidly reduces the symptoms of anxiety through control of the central nervous system (CNS) excitability by a selective and potent enhancement of inhibitory gammaamino butyric acid (GABA) mediated neurotransmission.  Accelerated photochemical stability of alprazolam was performed under several conditions. The study involved the evaluation of photostability of Alprazolam in active mater, in coated tablets and coated tablets embeded in diffrent colored blister packings. The evaluation of the stability was done using special stability test chambers at 60% controlled humidity, temperature and UV irradiation. The High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the conten of the Alprazolam before and after UV irradiation. The mobile phase was a 60:35:5 volume mixture of acetonitrile : buffer (phosphate pH=6) : tetrahydrofuran (THF). The obtanined results for short term photostability study do not show any significant degradation of this molecule by the UV irradiation, in active mater and this holds tru for the coated tablet and also for the coated tablets embeded in diffrent colored blister packings *(The authors would like to thank the TrePharm – a pharmaceutical manufacturer- for the use of their instrumental platform for the study).



Mauro Valente1, Rodolfo Figueroa2, Francisco Malano3, Mauricio Santibañez2

1Institute of Physics E.Gaviola - CONICET and University of Cordoba; Argentina & Departamento de Ciencias Físicas - Universidad de La Frontera; Chile, Cordoba, Argentina
2Departamento de Ciencias Físicas - Universidad de La Frontera; Chile, Temuco, Chile
3Institute of Physics E.Gaviola - CONICET and University of Cordoba; Argentina, Cordoba, Argentina

Section: Nanoparticles markers

This works investigates the performance of different setups for the detection of gold nanoparticles in tumors using X-ray fluorescent emissions following irradiation with conventional X-ray tubes.

Geometric and physical issues regarding detection system are studied by means of two different dedicated Monte Carlo subroutines based on the the FLUKA and PENELOPE main codes. Additionally, these tools allow to study the effect of Au concentration, tumor size and shape, among others relevant parameters.

Optimal configurations are evaluated in terms of signal-to-noise ratio for the K-lines in the recorded spectra. Although each specific situation has its own optimal detection configuration, some important issues are common to all cases.



George Ryazantsev1, Maxim Khaskov2


Section: Neutron and Heavy Ion Radiations

Neutron matter is principally different from other states of the matter and consists only of neutrons. The substance turns to neutron state under ultrahigh pressure, which is not still available at the laboratories. The neutron matter has a density close to nuclear one, which exists inside the neutron stars. Under transformation to the neutron state, the electrons of substance unite with protons and they both convert to neutron (neutronization). Since the neutron matter can be regarded as chemical simple substance, the question inevitably arises about the Element of neutron and its location in the Periodic System (PS). From the logic of Periodic Law (PL), which postulates that the atomic number is equal to electric charge of nucleus, the atomic number of the neutron matter should be equal to zero, which brings to mind D.I.Mendeleev’s ideas about zero group and zero period in the PS.  It is known [1], that D.I.Mendeleev assumed the existence of chemical elements X and Y, which should be located in the PS before Hydrogen. The element X (Mendeleev called it as Newtonium – “I would like to call it as Newtonium – to commemorate immortal Isaac Newton”[1]) should be located in the zero period of zero group as the lightest analog of noble gases. Moreover, Mendeleev allowed the existence one more element, which is lighter than Hydrogen – the element Y or Koronium (Crownium) [1]. The problem of “zero elements” is clarified if we expand the idea of “atom” – as a sum not only the electric charges, but other charges too (baryon and lepton) [2]. Under such point of view, before Hydrogen one can locate Positronium (a pair of electron and positron), which has long been regarded as the atomic system, and Newtonium of Mendeleev as two isotopes – Neutronium (a pair of neutron and antineutron) and Neutrinium (a pair of neutrino and antineutrino). “The expanded charge” concept of atom is discussed [2]. Beside the gravitation neutronization, other mechanisms of the neutron matter formation are discussed (condensation of ultracold neutrons and neutronization due to critical increasing of atomic number of elements in PS). On the example of ultracold neutrons, it can be seen that they are already handled in the physical laboratories like the ordinary matter: they are stored in the vessels and “pumped” through pipes as a gas. The possibility of chemical interaction of ultracold neutrons with the elements with odd number of electrons is discussed. The broadening of PL beyond the boundaries of classical elements and the coverage of the expanded PL to a much broader area of matter of the Universe, based on the forgotten Mendeleev’s ideas, are proposed. It is proposed that the neutron and its isotopes (dineutron, tetraneutron and so on) are the beginning of PS and neutron star matter is the end of PS.

[1]. Mendeleev D.I. Writings. V.2. Periodic Law. Under edition of Bah A.N. Leningrad: Goshimtehizdat, 1934. 520 p.;

[2]. Ryazantsev G.B. Russian Atomic Society. The problems of “zero” elements. http://www.atomic-energy.ru/papers/44698



Pavel Chubunov, Vasily Anashin, Sergey Iakovlev

Branch of JSC , Moscow, Russia

Section: Neutron and Heavy Ion Radiations

Influence of space heavy charged particles is one of the main origins for uprising of upsets and failures in the modern electronic components for spacecraft equipment and systems. These effects occur when single charged particle hits in sensitive volume on the semiconductor chip and names single event effect (SEE). The main features that describe level of hardness to SEE are the value of linear energy transfer (LET) when effects starting to appear (threshold LET), the saturation cross-section of effects and also the dependence of cross-section from LET (usually Weibull curve). To determine features of hardness to SEE it is necessary to carrying out testing using heavy ions accelerators. At present time, in Russia, test facilities for SEE testing of electronic components and equipment were created and put into operation. These facilities are based on accelerators U-400 and U-400M and located in Dubna city, Moscow region. Two types of facilities are used for SEE testing – with low (3-6 MeV/nucleon) and high (20-60 MeV/nucleon) initial energy of particles.

In order to define dependence of cross-section effect from value of LET it is needed to register not less than four points with effects during test campaign. With the facilities of low initial energy we use four different types of ions with specific LET to obtain four experimental points. The most common combination of ions is Xe; Kr; Ar; Ne with LET approximately 69; 40; 15; 6 MeV cm2/mg. The exact values of LET for each ion are determined on the basis of initial energy which is measured after the output of each ion.

The peculiarity of testing with low energy ion beams is necessity of vacuum ion guide tube and test chamber. This is a prerequisite for the delivery of ions from source to device under testing with no loss of energy. Thus, by measuring initial energy in vacuum tube (channel) we obtain the data to following LET calculation. Another feature of systems with low energy is a low range of ions in materials of electronic components (30-40 mkm). Therefore, decapsulation of electronic devices is required for SEE testing in order to ensure impact of heavy ions to open die (with no package). For the most of modern electronic components such range of ions is sufficient to achieve sensitive volume of chip, since the thicknesses of the passive layers (passivation, metallization, etc) is no more than 15 mkm. The information about type of ion and its initial energy is used for LET calculation. For LET estimation SRIM software is applied. A significant disadvantage of low energy facilities is long changeover time from one ion to another (from 6 hours for gaseous to 24 for metals), therefore the cost of tests increase.

The test bench with high initial energy differs from low-energy facilities by more powerful ion injector. With increasing of initial energy, the increasing of ion range and reducing of LET are observed. However, through reducing of the initial ion energy we can achieve similar values of LET in comparison with low energy facilities and a significant growth in particle range (from 200 up to 2000 mkm for different LET). This allows us to test devices with a deep depth of sensitive volume or samples which cannot be fully decapsulated. Moreover, for obtaining several values of LET we do not need to change type of ion, so, for getting four experimental points we need only two ions. Since the change of initial energy in accelerator in short time is impossible, special thin foils (or stack of foils) are used. In this case, the information about type and initial energy (in channel) and also about material and thickness of energy absorber is used for LET calculations with SRIM software. In full version of this work, the analyses of available LETs and ranges for different ions and they initial energies we will be presented. Also, the estimation of evaluation errors will be discussed.



Kiril Krezhov1, Dariya Vladikova2, Gergana Ivanova2, Tanya Malakova1, Tzvetana Nonova1, Erzebet Svab3, Ivaylo Genov2, Margit Fabian4

1Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
2Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
3Wigner Center of Physics, RISSPO, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
4 Center for energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary

Section: Neutron and Heavy Ion Radiations

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a promising green technology of direct conversion of chemical energy of fuel into electricity. Among the families of metal oxides, which can be successfully used as electrodes (cathodes or anodes) in SOFC, certain members of the large family of transition-metal oxides with perovskite structure ABO3 were found very prospective to fulfil most of the features required for preparation of mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) oxide materials for SOFCs operated in the intermediate temperature range. In this regard Barium cerate with Y-substitution at the B-site (Ce site) is well known for excellent conduction capabilities in the temperature range 400–800 °C as a result from the proton motion in the crystal lattice. Doping with Y3+ is very effective and the proton conductivity in BaCe1−xYxO3−δ increases with the increasing of the dopant concentration up to x =0.2. However, the phase behaviour of the composition BCY20 (x=0.20) is very complicated. Even at room temperature the crystalline structure remains contradictory because various structures of monoclinic, rhombohedral and orthorhombic symmetry are reported. The characterization of the chemical composition and stability, oxygen stoichiometry and cationic ratios of each synthesized phase is of great importance to understand the defect-chemistry that would govern the transport properties. We report on oxygen-deficient BaCe0.85Y0.15O3−δ (BCY15) perovskites prepared by auto-combustion with following calcination at high temperature. The structural details of powder, dense and porous samples of materials based on BaCe0.85Y0.15O3−δ (BCY15) were investigated from full profile analysis of neutron and x-ray diffraction patterns. The materials were used recently as cathode, anode and central membrane in an innovative monolithic design of SOFC.




Alexander Shemyakov1, Svetlana Zaichkina1, Olga Rozanova1, Svetlana Sorokina1, Sergey Romanchenko1, Helena Smirnova1, Olga Vakhrusheva1, Vladimir Pikalov2

1Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics of the RAS, Pushchino, Russia
2Institute of High Energy Physics of National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute", Protvino, Russia

Section: Neutron and Heavy Ion Radiations

In connection with the active space exploration and the search for new sources for radiotherapy of tumors, studies of the effects of low doses of radiation, which are characterized by a high LET, are currently of particular interest. Heavy ion beams have a better dose distribution in the target than photon radiotherapy and exert a more sparing effect on healthy tissue near the tumor. Therapy with heavy charged particles becomes of more and more interest all over the world, and many medical centers tend to use heavy ion beam in radiotherapy. However, when irradiated to the Bragg peak, healthy tissues also experience a dose load that should also be taken into account.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological effects induced by accelerated carbon ions with an energy of 450 MeV/n to the Bragg peak in mice: dose dependence of cytogenetic damage in bone marrow, thymus and spleen cellularity, induction of reactive oxygen species – ROS, in whole blood, and calculate the value of relative biological effectiveness (RBE).

Experiments were performed with male outbred albino SHK mice at an age of two months. The animals were kept under the standard conditions in the vivarium of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics (Russia). Mice were irradiated with U-70 particle accelerator at IHEP (Protvino, Russia) in a dose range from 0.1 to 2 Gy to the Bragg peak. We used pulsed radiation mode (one pulse per 8 s). For comparison, other group of mice was irradiated with X-rays (1 Gy/min, Pushchino, Russia) at the same dose range. Sham-irradiated animals were used as controls. The gafchromic EBT3 films (USA) and neutron monitor were used for carbon beam profile verification and dose control. The level of cytogenetic damage in the bone marrow was assessed using the micronucleus test, the level of ROS production was assessed in whole blood using luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, and the cellularity of the thymus and the spleen was estimated by index of mass.

The study of the biological effect of carbon ions irradiation in the dose range from of 0.1 to 2 Gy on mice in vivo showed that the dose dependence of the yield of cytogenetic lesions in the bone marrow is nonlinear, the thymus and spleen index of mass is considerably reduced as compared to unirradiated mice, the level of ROS is increased and that the X-ray irradiation at the same dose range leads to the reduction of thymus and spleen index of mass at the doses of 1.5 and 2 Gy. The average value of RBE for the accelerated carbon ions with an energy of 450 MeV/n in the investigated dose range was from 1.3 to 2.4.



Satoru Nakamura

Nagasaki Kawatana Medical Center, Nagasaki, Japan

Section: Nuclear Medicine

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder which is primarily characterized by bradykinesia, muscular rigidity and tremor.

We reported the “DAT scan in diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease in our hospital” at Third RAD conference.

 We found the case of improved imaging on DAT scan after deep brain stimulation in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease among them.

 We report this case, and discuss about dopaminergic system and furthermore the possibility of observation for DAT scan imaging on other therapy such as stem cell therapy in the near future.



Mariia Firsova 1, Nina Polyakova2, Oksana Kashchenko2

1National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education , Kyiv , Ukraine
2Kyiv City Oncology Clinic, Department of Radoinuclide Therapy, Kyiv, Ukraine

Section: Nuclear Medicine

Introduction: bisphosphonates are widely used for treatment in bone metastasis. To prevent bony complications in metastatic cancer it must be used for long enough term. However, bisphosphonates application might cause serious side effects that should be considered with high importance for patients receiving courses of radionuclide therapy. Two bisphosphonates have mild side effect profile – zolendronic acid and pamidronate (Maltzman J.). To prevent cumulative toxicity these bisphosphonates were administrated in rotation between radionuclide courses.

Materials and methods: results of 14 patients’ treatment — 8 females with multiply bone metastasis of breast cancer and 6 males with multiply bone metastasis of prostate cancer were analysed. Average patients’ age: females -~ 57,5 ; males ~ 61,5. Zolendronic acid (4mg) and pamidronate (90 mg) were administrated according to regular instruction (once per month during 3-4 months). Dosage depended on calcium level in plasma and creatinine clearance. At the same time, calcium and vitamin D (in zolendronic) or calciotonine (in pamidronate) were administrated between courses. Course of radionuclide therapy (Sm 153-oxabifor 55,5-74 Mbq/kg or Sr 89 cloride 150 Mbq or P 32 phosphat natrium 370-420 Mbq) followed bisphosphonate course. Zolendronic acid or pamidronate was administrated  not early than 3-4 weeks after radionuclide course. Repetitive course of radionuclide therapy was conducted 3-4 months after (before that 3-4 doses of exact bisphosphonate were received once per month). Finally, all patents got from 3 to 4 courses of radionuclide therapy following the same treatment scheme.

Results: patients treated with intermittent usage of zolendronic acid and pamidronate admitted reduction of pain symptoms earlier than other patients (receiving the only bisphosphonate during the whole period of radionuclide treatment); reduction of pain intensity by VRS scale and Karnofsky scale from 30-40 to 60-70 in average. Scintigraphic control — positive shifts were registered in 7 patients with decrease of focuses and intensity reduction; 5 patients — stabilization of process, and prolongation in 2 patients. Quality of life improvement (10-20% higher vs. non-intermittent group), no pathological bone fractures in all patients, prolongation of remission period for 2.5 months in average was registered during 12-18 months’ tracking period. No critical renal or dentical complications were determined during the observation period.

Conclusions: intermittent usage of zolendronic acid and pamidronate between radionuclide therapy courses of multiply bone metastases demonstrated higher efficiency vs. mono-bisphosphonate approach. The most probable reason behind higher efficiency of intermittent usage of new low-toxic generation bisphosphonates is lower cumulative toxicity. 



Yulia Lysak1, Vladimir Klimanov1, Boris Narkevich2

1National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
2N.N. Blokhin Cancer Research Center of RAMS, Moscow, Russia

Section: Nuclear Medicine

The radionuclide therapy (RT) is one of the most fast developing fields of nuclear medicine, it is based on administration a radiopharmaceutical (RP) drug directly to the pathological lesion in the patient’s body, it is supposed to radiate the tumor with tolerant level of radiation of other tissues. However, one of the most significant problems in the RT is control of absorbed dose in the tumor sites, accumulating RP  α-, β- and γ-emitting radionuclides. Such control is necessary not only for evaluation of therapeutic effect of RT, but also for estimation of absorbed dose in distant metastases, which is important for subsequent external beam radiotherapy planing.

For calculating cumulative local dose in our study, we propose a scheme of calculation of absorbed dose in the tumor, based on simulation results with MCNP code of scintigraphic research of pathological area  on gamma camera section of patient`s body. Stages of obtaining the necessary data includes simulation scintigraphy gamma-chamber vial with administered to the patient activity of RP, located at a fixed distance from the collimator, and conducting a similar study with identical geometry measurements and the same value of the activity of radiopharmaceuticals in the pathological site in  patient`s body. For obtaining such calculation results in the MCNP code was modeled adapted Fischer-Snyder human phantom. The calculation was performed for different sizes of pathological sites and different depths of tumors.

Based on the obtained data,  several mixed-β-γ-emits (131I, 177Lu) and pure β-emitting (89Sr, 90Y) therapeutic radionuclides showed increasing of counting rate of detector concomitant with increasing of the size of the tumor site and its depth, at constant input RP activity.  We also obtained correction factors for absorption and scattering of radiation of radionuclides for different radiation energies and efficient energy of the bremsstrahlung spectrum, different depths of occurrence and quantity focus that provides the basis for the new approach to radionuclide therapy dosimetry planning.




medical physicist, Gothenburg, Sweden

Section: Nuclear Medicine

The challenge of installing and starting clinical operations of PET/CT in a hospital requires cooperation from a multidisciplinary team. This is well described by the AAPM Task Group 108 and IAEA [1,2]. When not only the PET/CT modality is new to the department, but also the entire hospital facility is new, even greater efforts are required in order to successfully begin clinical activity. At the new Østfold Hospital Kalnes, the decision to install a PET/CT in the nuclear medicine department required starting from scratch in every possible way. The decision to install a PET/CT was made after designing and planning a room for SPECT/CT, which meant modifying the physical buildings of the new hospital during a late phase of construction. Shielding had to be increased in order to accommodate positron annihilation radiation energy. Østfold Hospital Kalnes had the opportunity to choose among three manufacturers of PET/CT machines. In order to decide which machine to purchase, extensive research and evaluation by a multidisciplinary team was necessary. The team had to choose a machine that will be suitable for the present and future ambitions of the hospital. The staff of the nuclear medicine department is well experienced in clinical SPECT/CT, but nobody had previously worked with PET/CT. Training became a critical part of preparing for the installation and clinical implementation of a new modality. Department seminars highlighted radiation safety and clinical PET/CT protocols, and visits to other hospitals were made in order to observe clinical routines and quality control procedures. Since Østfold Hospital Kalnes is not a university hospital and is completely new to PET/CT, it was decided to join the EARL FDG quality assurance program from the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. Participation in EARL will enhance confidence in both the staff and the public because accreditation shows that the department performs PET/CT studies at a level that is comparable to university hospitals that have a long clinical history with clinical PET/CT. The program will also increase possibilities for collaboration and research. [1] Madsen MT, Anderson JA, Halama JR, Kleck J, Simpkin DJ, Votaw JR, et al. PET and PET/CT shielding requirements AAPM Task report 108, Med Phys2006;33:4–15. [2]International Atomic Energy Agency, Radiation Protection in Newer Medical Imaging Techniques: PET/CT, Safety Reports Series No. 58, IAEA , Vienna (2008).



maryam pourkaveh

Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

Section: Nuclear Medicine

Introduction: as a result of ever-increasing use of nuclear technology in various fields, increasing the awareness for coping with nuclear and radiation accidents as a part of the care education becomes a requirement. The objective of this study is survey of the awareness level of working doctors and medical students in Hamadan province concerning medical response and preparedness in nuclear accidents.
Methods: in this descriptive cross-sectional study, the awareness levels of 132 working doctors and medical students of Hamadan were compared by use of a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of two parts. The data concerned were analyzed utilizing SPSS 16 software, the descriptive statistics, and Chi square correlation test and/or Fisher exact test.  
Findings: in this study, 49% of working doctors and 51.9% of students were male. The doctors’ awareness regarding the consequences of a nuclear accident and acquaintance with special therapeutic protocol for the nuclear injured was significantly more than that of the students. None of them had significantly attended any training courses and both groups considered attending specialty training courses for acquaintance with nuclear accidents as necessary.
Conclusion: considering the results of this study, the awareness level of working doctors and medical students regarding medical response and preparedness in nuclear accidents is not acceptable. Therefore, inclusion of topics related to radiation accidents in the syllabus of medical students and, as well, planning for continuous education of working doctors appears to be necessary.
Keywords: Ionizing radiation, nuclear accidents, the nuclear injured, medical response



Umit Kara1, Huseyin Ozan Tekin2, Mustafa Yıldız3

1Suleyman Demirel University Vocational School of Health Services Medical Imaging Techniques, Isparta, Turkey
2Uskudar University Vocational School of Health Services Radiotherapy Department, Istanbul, Turkey
3Suleyman Demirel University Medicine Faculty Nuclear Medicine, Isparta, Turkey

Section: Nuclear Medicine

Ionizing radiation such a x ray or gamma ray is used routine in hospitals and clinics to create diagnostic imaging procedures. Gamma rays are ionizing radiation, and are thus biologically hazardous. Nuclear medicine uses gamma ray which come from radiopharmaceutical for make  diagnostic imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals are agents used to diagnose certain medical symptom or treat certain diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals are given to the patient in several different ways, they may be given by mouth or given by injection. In this work we were used Tc99m in nuclear medicine clinic. Tc 99m is given patient with injection by the direct supervision of a doctor with specialized training in nuclear medicine. In this work, we are worked this routine examination in nuclear medicine.  Firstly we noted injections radiation doses which come for diagnosis in nuclear medicine clinic. Later Patient radiation doses were measured with dosimeter.



Umit Kara1, Huseyin Ozan Tekin2, Mustafa Yıldız3

1Suleyman Demirel University Vocational School of Health Services Medical Imaging Department, Isparta, Turkey
2Uskudar University Vocational School of Health Services Radiotherapy Department, Istanbul, Turkey
3Suleyman Demirel University Medicine Faculty Nuclear Medicine, Isparta, Turkey

Section: Nuclear Medicine

Nuclear medicine imaging use safe, painless and  effective techniques to image the body. Recently, nuclear medicine is playing an important role in medical imaging and the number of nuclear medicine examination is sharply increasing. Nuclear medicine, uses small amounts of radioactive materials and traces their move on your body. This technique is originally detection of gamma photons emitted by radionuclide injected.  In nuclear medicine protocols, radioactive agent give to patient, agent move on organ, image of organ scan and the end patient image with camera. In all this protocol patient and workers may take a radaition.The aim of our study was to estimate effective dose from most common procedures performed in nuclear medicine departments. Data of nuclear medicine procedures performed in  nuclear medicine departments  during 1 month.









The new trend of threat has changed so much so that we can no longer rely on the perception that radioactive materials are self-protecting and therefore may not be easily accessible by terrorists. With the increase in application of nuclear technology in Ghana, there is a need to put pragmatic and prudent measures in place to adequately and effectively protect the facilities and their materials from all kinds of adversaries. Physical Protection Systems for facilities and sources are not the only way to detect and/or prevent possible malicious acts.

‘‘The assembly of characteristics, attitudes and behaviour of individuals, organization and institutions, which serves as a means to support and enhance nuclear security’’ is crucial in enhancing nuclear security at a facility. This implies that the Human factor plays a crucial role in the entire nuclear security architecture of a country. A facility that has its staff naturally and positively practicing security culture is bound to limit the facilities vulnerability to threats.

The study evaluated the security culture concept and its implementation of two facilities at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission where radioactive sources are mainly used. This was done by the use of a developed questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed using the World Institute of Nuclear Security (WINS) Best Practice Guide 1.4 on Nuclear Security Culture and the IAEA Draft Document NST026 on Self Assesment of Nuclear Security Culture in Facilities and Activities that Uses Nuclear and/or other radioactive Materials.

The evaluation showed that, staff were aware of the potential risk that the facility pose and the risk pose to the facilities and the radioactive materials. The evaluation also revealed how and extent to which security culture is implemented at the facilities.



Samoilov Alexander, Andrey Bushmanov, Andrey Kretov

Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Moscow, Russia

Section: Occupational health

Enterprises of the Russian nuclear industry is stably maintained a low level of occupational diseases during last years: not more than 120 cases per year - less than 1.5% of occupational diseases in the Russian Federation. Among workers of the nuclear industry occupational diseases from exposure to ionizing radiation are rare (0.8% of total occupational diseases in this group of workers) and are the result of working conditions in the early period of development of the industry.

Today, Russian occupational health system is providing measures to prevent not only occupational diseases, but also diseases hinder the continuation of professional activities with sources of ionizing radiation.

Were studied the results of obligatory medical examinations 70 000 nuclear workers engaged in work with ionizing radiation sources, including the rate of medical contraindications (number of employees with medical contraindications, per 100 employees, have undergone periodic medical examinations).

The study shows that from 2011 till 2014 the frequency of medical contraindications ranges from 2.5 to 3,22 cases per 100 workers of the nuclear industry. Identified major groups of diseases that hinder continuation of work with sources of ionizing radiation: сardiovascular diseases, diseases of the respiratory system and the musculoskeletal system are major groups of diseases that hinder continuation of work with sources of ionizing radiation.

The results allow to formulate targeted measures to identify risks and prevent the development of the main types of medical contraindications that would ensure the prevention of disability qualified and experienced specialists and, consequently, will prevent economic losses associated with the loss of these professionals.

Calculations showed that the economic losses of the nuclear industry associated with the need to train new workers to replace suspended from work of highly skilled professionals can achieve $ 200 million a year. Prevention of medical contraindications among professionals of the nuclear industry, working with ionizing radiation sources, can prevent up to 30% of these economic losses.




Alicia Negron-Mendoza1, Sergio Ramos-Bernal1, María Colin-Garcia2, Alejandro Heredia1

1Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico DF, Mexico
2Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico DFf, Mexico

Section: Radiation Chemistry

Chemical evolution encompasses the physical and chemical processes involved in the formation of organic compounds before the appearance of life.  Many of these abiotic reactions were not spontaneous and required the input of energy. UV light from the sun is considered the most important source due to its abundance.

Ionizing radiation may play a significant role in chemical evolution because it is a very efficient source of energy for prebiotic synthesis, its way of energy deposition, and the effectiveness of its reactions via free radicals. The use of this source in prebiotic synthesis is substantiated by calculations of the energy available for the decay of radioactive elements with a long half-life. Cosmic radiation is an external energy source that also could have contributed to chemical evolution processes, especially in extraterrestrial environments. In the context of chemical evolution, radiation chemistry can be a very precise and useful tool to simulate the changes that suffered organic molecules exposed to high-energy radiation. This work highlights the importance of ionizing radiation in prebiotic synthesis reproducing both terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments.

The support of CONACYT Grant is acknowledge



Alicia Negron-Mendoza1, Ellen Aguilar-Ovando1, Jorge Cruz-Castañeda Cruz-Castañeda1, Thomas Buhse2

1Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico, D.F., Mexico
2Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico

Section: radiation Chemistry

Studies in chemical evolution are intended to demonstrate the generation of compounds of biological importance from substances that could have found in abiotic conditions on the primitive Earth and extraterrestrial environments. In this context, the aim of the present work is to examine the behavior of D, L-glyceraldehyde in aqueous solution under irradiation, in particular, to study the effect of irradiation temperatures.  Glyceraldehyde is related to biochemical processes, and it may be the starting material for the synthesis sugars in prebiotic conditions. The experiment was performed using gamma rays of the same LET (linear energy transfer) of the most abundant protons in the cosmic rays (Draganic et al., 1984).

The experiments attempt, by using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography- mass spectroscopy for the analysis of aqueous suspensions glyceraldehyde irradiated in different doses and temperatures with a 60-Cobalt gamma source. Many compounds sugars-like were found.



Ercan YILMAZ1, Senol KAYA1, Ramazan LOK1, Aliekber AKTAG1, Huseyin KARACALI1, Aleksandar Jaksic2

1Abant Izzet Baysal University Center for Nuclear Radiation Detectors Research and Applications, Bolu, Turkey
2Tyndall National Institute, Cork, Ireland

Section: Radiation Detectors

The initial device characteristics, Co-60 gamma irradiation response and fading characteristics of Nuclear Radiation Sensing Field Effect Transistor (NürFET) fabricated in NÜRDAM-Turkey have been investigated. Various gate oxide thicknesses were studied and obtained results were compared with commercial 400 nm implanted gate oxide RadFETs.  Results demonstrate that the initial trap densities of NürFETs are convenient for microelectronic technology and the sensitivity of devices increases with increasing the gate oxide thickness. The fabricated NürFETs exhibit almost similar fading behaviors with RadFETs. In addition, good or even better linear ΔVth- dose relations have been observed for NürFETs than RadFETs. Consequently, NürFETs have promising potential to be used in gamma- ray irradiation measurements.





Aysegul KAHRAMAN, Ercan YILMAZ, Aliekber AKTAG, Şenol Kaya

Center for Nuclear Radiation Detector Research and Applications, 14280 Bolu, Turkey, BOLU, Turkey

Section: Radiation Detectors

The MOS based radiation sensors/dosimeters have been widely used in different areas such as space applications, high energy physics experiments, and radiotherapy. The studies on sensors have continued in different aspects such as determination of the average deposited energy in the gate oxide by Monte Carlo simulation, investigation of the alternative gate dielectrics to traditional SiO2, and evaluation of the dosimetry aspects of the different oxides.

The aim of this study is to investigate the usability of the Erbium Oxide (Er2O3) in the radiation sensors. For this purpose, Er2O3 film was deposited on p type Si (100) wafer by RF magnetron sputtering and these films were annealed at 500 oC under N2 ambient. After that Al/Er2O3/Si/Al MOS capacitors were fabricated. After that, these capacitors were irradiated under 60Co radioactive source in a dose range of 4-76 Gy. Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) and Conductance-Voltage (G-V) curves were obtained at 100 kHz. The sample description was made by the XRD, FTIR, and AFM analyses. The XRD and FTIR results show that there is not Erbium silicate formation in the structure. The dielectric constant of the film was calculated from the 1 MHz measurements as 12.22. The bidirectional shift in the flat band voltages was observed: to right side compared to ideal one in the dose range of 4-16 Gy and to left side after 16 Gy. The variation of the flat band voltages decreased with increasing dose range due to electric field screening occurred at the high doses. Therefore, the linearity of the flat band voltage shifts as a function of the applied dose showed the different behaviour in the dose ranges of 4-16 Gy and 16- 76 Gy. The oxide trapped charge density was increased with increasing irradiation dose. The interface states remained in order of 1010 eV cm-2 in the studied dose range. This result showed that the applied radiation dose did not cause a significant degradation in the capacitor. The calibration of the capacitor was determined using the flat band voltage shifts. The values showed that Er2O3 MOS capacitor was more sensitive to the gamma radiation compared to the SiO2 and Sm2O3 based capacitors.



Mustafa Topaksu1, Mehmet Yüksel1, Tamer Dogan2

1Çukurova University, Arts-Sciences Faculty, Physics Department, Adana, Turkey
2Çukurova University, Vocational School of Imamoglu, Department of Computer Technologies, Adana, Turkey

Section: Radiation Detectors

Natural calcium fluorite crystal generally has four thermoluminescence (TL) glow peaks around 100oC, 120oC, 190oC and 300oC for a irradiated sample. In this study, the trap depths of natural calcium fluorite sample for 190oC and 300oC TL peaks were determined. In order to determine trap depths computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD), various heating rate (VHR) and peak shape (PS) method were used. All TL measurements were carried out on three aliquots of 20±0.10 mg samples by using a Harshaw QS 3500 manual type reader that was interfaced to a PC where the signals were stored and analyzed. Sample was irradiated at room temperature using the β source from a calibrated 90Sr/90Y β (≈0.04 Gy/s). TL glow curves were recorded up to 400°C at a constant heating rate of 1°C/s.

Key words: Trap depth, thermoluminescence, calcium fluorite, CGCD, VHR, PS.


Acknowledgement: This work was supported by Research Fund of the Çukurova University (Project Number: FED-2016-5721). All authors would like to thank Research Fund of the Çukurova University for financial support.



Mehmet Yüksel

Çukurova University, Arts-Sciences Faculty, Physics Department, Adana, Turkey

Section: Radiation Detectors

In this study, thermoluminescence (TL) properties of anhydrous sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) were studied. These TL properties include the dose response of Na2SO4 for beta (β) irradiation, reusability, TL kinetic parameters, and short-term fading. All TL measurements were carried out on three aliquots of 40±0.15 mg samples by using a Risø TL/OSL DA-20 reader. Irradiation was performed with a 90Sr/90Y β source, which has 40 mCi activity (dose rate: 6.689 Gy/s). TL glow curves were recorded up to 250°C in nitrogen atmosphere at a constant heating rate of 5°C/s. The Na2SO4 samples exhibit a prominent glow peak at 100°C along with a shouldered peak at 150°C. It was observed that the intensities of these low temperature TL peaks increase linearly with β-dose. The activation energy (E), order of kinetics (b), and frequency factor (s) of the samples were determined using computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) method after exposed in different β doses.

Key words: Thermoluminescence, sodium sulfate, dose response, reusability, fading.


Acknowledgement: This work was supported by Research Fund of the Çukurova University (Project Number: FED-2016-5626). All authors would like to thank Research Fund of the Çukurova University for financial support.



Mehmet Yüksel1, Ziyafer Gizem Portakal1, Tamer Dogan2, Mustafa Topaksu1

1Çukurova University, Arts-Sciences Faculty, Physics Department, Adana, Turkey
2Çukurova University, Vocational School of Imamoglu, Department of Computer Technologies, Adana, Turkey

Section: Radiation Detectors

Different rare earth elements (REE) doped calcium sulfate (CaSO4) based dosimeters are being used in personnel dosimetry, such as CaSO4:Dy and CaSO4:Tm. In this paper, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) characteristics of CaSO4:Nd crystalline prepared by precipitation method has been studied. The structure of produced CaSO4:Nd powder was characterized using SEM-EDX method. The effect of heating rate (HR), preheat and reusability properties have been investigated after beta (β) irradiation. Furthermore, thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves were recorded and TL glow peaks of CaSO4:Nd were determined after preheat process at 90oC. 


Key words: Optically stimulated luminescence, doped calcium sulfate, REE, thermoluminescence, preheat.



Toshiyuki Onodera1, Keitaro Hitomi2, Tadayoshi Shoji1

1Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai, Japan
2Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan

Section: Radiation Detectors

 Thallium bromide (TlBr) has high atomic numbers (Tl: 81 and Br: 35), a high density (7.56 g/cm3), and a wide bandgap energy (2.68 eV). Therefore, it is suitable for gamma-ray spectrometry operating at room temperature. To obtain TlBr crystals with high purity and high charge collection efficiency, multipass zone refining and horizontal traveling molten zone (HTMZ) method have been typically combined. HTMZ facilitates TlBr crystals growth, since purification and growth are performed at the same horizontal zone-refining furnace. However, the TlBr crystals’ diameter is limited to approximately half the inner diameter of the ampoule. To overcome this problem, in the present study, the vertical traveling molten zone (VTMZ) method was applied instead, thereby producing TlBr crystals with a large diameter. TlBr crystals were grown using both HTMZ and VTMZ from purified material, and TlBr detectors were fabricated from each crystal. The detector’s performance and crystallinity were evaluated, in each case, from gamma-ray energy spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns.



Nursultan Japashov1, Ahmet Saymbetov1, Ramizulla Muminov2, Sali Radzhapov2, Yorqin Toshmurodov2, Bauyrzhan Mukhametkali1, Nursultan Sissenov1, Nurzhigit Kuttybay1, Aizhan Mansurova3

1al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
2Physico-Technical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
3Nazarbayev intellectual school, Almaty, Kazakhstan

Section: Radiation Detectors

The solution of many problems of modern science and technology in experimental nuclear physics requires the creation of new and improvement of existing devices for registration of nuclear radiation. In recent years, it is becoming more widely to use semiconductor detectors (SCD) based on silicon, germanium and compound semiconductor type compounds as A3B5 and A2B6. Among the broad class of nuclear radiation detectors based on semiconductor crystals a special place occupy silicon-lithium detectors.

The development of semiconductor strip detectors with orthogonal field with high energy and position resolution, linearity of the signal over a wide energy range for various types of particles, is closely connected with the production technology of the detector modules and properties of the original semiconductor crystal. This paper deals with physical and technological features of manufacture of Si (Li) strip detectors with orthogonal field with a large sensitive area.

The disadvantages of existing semiconductor strip detectors are that they have not high position resolution, as well as the impossibility of combining the thin entrance window with a sufficient thickness of the sensitive area. Processing methods of creating resistive layers and modes are not enough covered in the technical literature. The identity of the elements of discrete strip detectors with orthogonal field and characteristics of resistive layers of continuous strip detectors caused by the initial parameters of the semiconductor in particular coordinate the distribution of inhomogeneities in the volume and nature. If spectrometry heterogeneity manifested in the form of large-scale traps, but their nature and coordinate distribution of the track remain undetected. The known correlation of the effective dimensions of inhomogeneities and their spectrometric characteristics of the detectors is not investigated in the working conditions of detectors with orthogonal field.

Investigation of various defects in semiconductors, to control possible management of their concentrations, have fundamental importance in the development of high-quality semiconductor strip detectors with orthogonal field and with large amounts of sensitive area, as these characteristics ultimately determine the coordinate and computing spectrometric characteristics of these devices .

Consequently, we will report the creation and optimization technology of  strip detectors with orthogonal field, on the basis of  Si (Li) p-i-n structures with, big area of workspace. The results of the energy resolution of these detectors are measured by using a source of  226Ra - α particles and 207Bi- β particles. 



Laura Basiricò1, Andrea Ciavatti1, Tobias Cramer1, Piero Cosseddu2, Annalisa Bonfiglio2, Beatrice Fraboni1

1University of Bologna – Department of Physics and Astronomy, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, Bologna, Italy
2University of Cagliari – Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Piazza d’Armi, Cagliari, Italy

Section: Radiation Detectors

In recent years, the first studies on the employment of organic materials as direct detectors of the ionizing radiation, i.e. its direct conversion into an electrical signal, have been proposed and we reported about the performances of solution-grown Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals (OSSCs) as direct X-ray detector, operating at room temperature and in atmosphere, showing a stable and linear response with increasing dose rate [1]–[3]. The results obtained so far with organic single-crystal based detectors paved the way not only to a deeper understanding of the X-ray photon-to-electron conversion processes in organic materials, but also to the development of a new class of organic-based direct detectors with higher performances. Therefore, in order to easily scale the dimensions of our detectors, and to exploit light weight, simple processability, and mechanical flexibility of organic materials, we are now focusing on the study of devices fabricated by the employment of easy, low cost wet-technologies (e.g. drop cast, inkjet printing, solution sharing), over flexible substrates (e.g. polyethylenetherephtalate (PET), Kapton). Indeed, the possibility to cover large curved surfaces is of great technological interest in the cultural heritage and medical 3D imaging for the determination of dose distribution on artworks and patients’ body. Organic small molecules are the suitable candidates for this purpose for their excellent solubility in several common organic solvents and their processability at low temperature (few tens of °C), which allow to employ thin plastic flexible foils as substrates. We will report about results on the employment of organic thin films based, fully bendable, devices as direct X-ray detectors, obtaining sensitivity values up to several hundreds of nC/Gy at very low bias of 0.2 V. We also assess the possibility to use the detector under mechanical strain and give the first demonstration of a 2×2 pixelated matrix organic detector.


[1]       B. Fraboni et al., Adv. Mater., vol. 24, no. 17, pp. 2289–2293, May 2012.

[2]       L. Basiricò et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 1791–1797, Aug. 2015.

[3]       A. Ciavatti et al., Adv. Mater., vol. 27, no. 44, pp. 7213-7220, November 2015.



Miguel Angel Carvajal Rodirguez1, Sofía Martínez García1, Damián Guirado Llorente2, Antonio Martínez Olmos1, Alberto J. Palma Lopez1

1University of Granada, Granada, Spain
2San Cecilio Hospital, Granada, Spain

Section: Radiation Detectors


Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) is a complementary technique that consists of applying an electron beam just after the tumour extraction during surgery, in order to kill the residual tumour cells. The dose is delivered in only one session with the patient on the stretcher, thus an error in dose cannot be corrected in followings sessions. Commercial lateral transistors have been used as dosimeters due to their linear response and easy thermal compensation, using one current where the thermal dependence is minimal (IZTC) or three currents as we showed in our previous works [1][2]. However, the IZTC was not found in DMOS transistors, thus these thermal compensation algorithms cannot be applied. In this work, the use of the parasitic diode of DMOS is presented, as well as its application for thermal compensation in electron beam dosimetry.

            Experimental setup and reader unit modifications

The thermal characterization was carried out placing the devices into a climate chamber model VCL4006 Vötsch and obtaining the I-V curves with an Agilent B1500 semiconductor analyzer. The transistors were irradiated with a LINAC Mevatron KDS (Siemens, Germany) that produces electron beams of 6, 8, 10, 12 and 15 MeV with a radiation field of 10x10cm2 and without buildup layers. The response of two types of commercial DMOS was studied, the BS250F and ZVP3306. During irradiation, the transistors were biased with 20V to improve their sensitivities.  The reader unit presented in previous works [1][2] was modified in order to activate the parasitic diode. The anode is connected to the drain and the cathode to the source, thus it can be activated using a current sink. In our case a current sink of 100 μA was used to measure the diode voltage (Vd), and then the real temperature of the silicon die was obtained. During irradiation, the reader unit is placed into the bunker and connected with a PC via USB cable extension. The source voltage (Vs) and Vd were measured every 4.5 s, and stored into a PC. Vs is measured at 100μA drain current, where the thermal dependence is minimal, but not zero (around 2.24 ± 0.02 mV/ºC for both types). The DMOS was soldered on a PCB with two JFETs, one between gate and drain (JFET G-D), and the second connecting the source and drain (JFET S-D) in order to short-circuit the terminals of the transistors in different situations:

- Storage state: JFET S-D ON; JFET G-D ON. Source and drain currents OFF.

- To measure Vs: JFET S-D OFF; JFET G-D ON. Source ON, sink OFF.

- To measure Vd: JFET S-D OFF; JFET G-D ON. Source OFF, sink OFF.

- Bias state: JFET S-D ON; JFET G-D OFF. Source and drain currents OFF.

            Preliminary results and conclusions

            The activation of the diode did not affect the response to radiation of the transistor. Concerning the two DMOS types studied, two transistors per type were irradiated, and ZVP3306 and BS250F reports very similar sensitivities with 6 MeV beams, (7.44 ± 0.15) and (7.33 ± 0.18) mV/Gy respectively. Due to statistical distribution in the set of 5 transistors per type analyzed, the thermal error in dose with electrons of 6 MeV was 1.4 cGy/ºC for the ZVP3306 and 4.0cGy/ºC for the BS250F. More beam energies and devices will be analyzed in following studies.



[1]        M.A. Carvajal et al., A compact and low cost dosimetry system based on MOSFET for in vivo radiotherapy. Sensors and Actuators A 182 (2012) 146-152.

[2]       M.S. Martinez Garcia et al., General purpose MOSFETs for the dosimetry of electron beams used in intra-operative radiotherapy,  Sensors and Actuators A 210 (2014) 175-181.



Gordana Medin

Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro

Section: Radiation Detectors

Graphene has emerged as one of the strongest candidates for post-silicon technologies. One of the most important applications of graphene in the future is sensing of particles of gas molecules, biomolecules or different chemicals or sensing of radiation of particles like alpha, gamma or cosmic particles. In this paper the focus is given to basic science understanding how ionizing radiation (gamma rays, alpha-particles, neutrons) and associated charged particles interact with nano-materials/structures based on graphene, which was reported to show extreme sensitivity to local environmental perturbations. Thus we want to bring the scientific foundation that may lead to graphene based radiation sensors. The interactions of ionizing radiations with various nanomaterials based on grapheme (hybrid materials), whose exceptional properties may enable remote detection of fissile materials with great sensitivity are explored too.  Several unique properties of graphene such as its extremely small thickness, very low mass, large surface to volume ratio, very high absorption coefficient, high mobility of charge carriers, high mechanical strength and high Young’s modulus make it exceptionally suitable for making sensors. We review the state-of-the-art in the application of graphene as a material and radiation detector and give proposal for a new multi detector set up based on pulse discrimination and coincidence mode.



Ercan Yilmaz1, A Kahraman2, D Yegen3, Aleksandar Jaksic4

1Center for Nuclear Radiation Detector Research and Applications, Bolu, Turkey
2Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey
3Clinic of radiation oncology, Ankara Atatürk Research and Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
4Tyndall National Institute, Cork, Ireland

Section: Radiation Detectors

Radiation-sensitive field effect transistor (RadFET) has found various applications in fields such as space radiation measurements, high energy physics experiments, and radiotherapy. The advantages of these sensors over the traditional dosimeters are small size with immediate, non-destructive read-out, low power consumption, wide dose range, and compatibility with microprocessors.

As the result of the interaction of radiation with the oxide (commonly used SiO2), number of defects/trap centres occur in the SiO2 and at the SiO2/Si interface. Basically, after irradiation, the electrons are very mobile and quickly move to the metal contacts, while the motion of holes is much slower compared to electrons and the holes escaping from initial recombination are trapped at these centers. Therefore, the net oxide charge is positive after irradiation and the threshold voltage of the sensor shifts towards more negative voltages.

The Monte Carlo simulation and experimental results on the average deposited energy in the gate oxide of the p-channel MOS transistors showed that sensitivity of the sensor changes depending on the radiation type and its energy. Therefore, investigation of the responses of the RadFETs to X-rays and electrons is aimed in the present study. In addition to this, the influences of fixed oxide traps, switching oxide traps (slow switching traps) and switching traps at the Si/SiO2 interface (fast switching traps) on threshold voltage shift have been analysed and the fading characteristics of the sensors determined.

The RadFETs with 400nm gate oxide manufactured by Tyndall National Institute were used in the experiments. The sensors were protected against electrostatic charge during the experiments and characterized under zero bias condition. RadFETs were tightly placed into the water equivalent phantom (30x30x13 cm3) and their surface was closed with the build-up layers made of water equivalent material (RW3) to ensure the charged particle equilibrium at the sensitive region. The RadFETs were irradiated with 6 MV X-rays, and 10 MeV and 18 MeV electrons by the linear accelerator (Elekta-Synergy platform) used for radiotherapy treatments. Dose verification was provided with IBA-FC65P ionizing chamber. For all the irradiations, RadFETs were located at the isocentre, at 100 cm from the source, and irradiation field was 10x10 cm2. The distances from the surfaces of the sensors at which the maximum dose was observed were 1.6 cm for 6 MV X-rays and 2.0 cm for the electrons.

The experimental results showed that the sensitivity of the device increased with increasing electron energy due to more energy transfer to the gate oxide. The fading showed close to linear behaviour in the studied time period for all sources. It was demonstrated that the fixed oxide traps are responsible for a larger portion of the threshold voltage shift than the switching traps.



G. Georgiev, V. Kozhuharov, L. Tsankov

Sofia University “St. Kl. Ohridski”, Sofia, Bulgaria

Section: Radiation Detectors

A custom LED driver producing light pulses with very low intensity and O(10 ns) length was designed and constructed. A microcontroller was employed to handle the amplitudes and the repetition rates of the output pulses. In addition, it also provided both a PC control of the system through a RS232 interface and an external trigger I/O. The LED driver was used to study and characterize scintillation photodetectors. 



G. Georgiev, V. Kozhuharov, L. Tsankov

Sofia University “St. Kl. Ohridski”, Sofia, Bulgaria

Section: Radiation Detectors

The Positron Annihilation into Dark Matter Experiment (PADME) at LNF-INFN Linac aims to perform a search for dark photons in positron-on-target annihilation process. A key component of the setup is the tracking system which allows to veto the bremsstrahlung induced background. Different solutions for the detector will be shown. An attention will be paid to the possibility to construct a hybrid tracker based on plastic scintillator fibres read out by CCD matrices. A complete study of the dark current, bias and noise of an astronomy CCD was performed at different temperatures. An analytic model describing the response of the CCD was developed. The results and the possible application of a CCD as a detector for light from plastic scintillators due to ionizing radiation will be discussed. 



jinshun bi

Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Section: Radiation Effects

   Reverse body bias increases the threshold voltage of MOSFETs, while forward bias decreases the threshold voltage. This effect can be used to lower standby power or increase the speed of VLSI circuits . This technique can be utilized in circuits intended for space applications, where power is a key consideration. Few publications, however, have discussed how body bias influences radiation-generated SETs of SOI CMOS technology.

 Transistors in TCAD simulations are based on Partially Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator (PDSOI) 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The top silicon film thickness is about two times than the junction depth. So the well contacts can be utilized to control the body bias of transistors. In this study, NMOS threshold volatge increases from 0.30 V to 0.93 V with body bias from 0.6 V to -1.8 V, while PMOS threshold voltage decreases from -0.32 V to -1.01 V with body bias from -0.6 V to 1.8 V.

 Five various particles from carbon to copper with different energies and LETs (Linear Energy Transfer) inject the transistors or circuits. The energy of injection ions ranges from 80 to 161 MeV, while the LET ranges from 1.73 to 33.40 MeV.cm2/mg. Radiation generates electron-hole pairs in SOI devices and change the nodal voltage level temporarily in combinational logic circuit, which triggers SETs. The drain area is found to be the most SET sensitive region by scanning the whole device by heavy ions. Only this case is considered in the following work.

    The normalized collected charge in NMOS and PMOS with different body bias induced by heavy ions is given. The collected charge Qcol is obtained by integrating the drain transient current with respect to time. Normalized collected charge for different heavy ion is equal to Qcol/Qcol(Vb = -1.8 V) for NMOS and Qcol/Qcol(Vb = 3.6 V) for PMOS. For NMOS, the collected charge increases with body bias step up from - 1.8 V to 0.6 V. But the normalized collected charge peaks for Si ion injection, then decreases. For PMOS, the collected charge increases with body bias step down from 3.6 V to 0.9 V. But the normalized collected charge relatively saturates when LET is higher than 9.6 MeV.cm2/mg (Si ion).

    Futhermore, we can negatively bias the body/source junction in off-state pull-down NMOS and positively bias the body/source junction in on-state pull-up PMOS at the same time. The collected charge in the off-state NMOS will be lowered by the negative body/source bias and the compensating current in the on-state PMOS will be increased by the positive body/source bias. In this way SET performance will be improved greatly.

    For inverter chain in TCAD simulation, the body bias effect on SET PIPB (Propogation Induced Pulse Broadening) can be observed. SET at output terminal with different body bias condition and Cu ion injection are given. Obviously, the SETs are mitigated by proper body bias conditions which were suggested above. Detailed discussions and physical analysis will be given in the full paper later.



Vladimir Anan’ev1, Mikhail Miklin1, Elena Dyagileva2, Valery Pak1, Denis Yakubik1

1Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo, Russia
2Kemerovo State Medical Academy, Kemerovo, Russia

Section: Radiation Effects

VUV photolysis of crystalline alkali nitrates

V. Anan’ev1*, M. Miklin1, E. Dyagileva2, V. Pak1, D. Yakubik1

1Kemerovo State University, Krasnaya str., 6, Kemerovo, Russia

2Kemerovo State Medical Academy, Voroshilova str., 22a, Kemerovo, Russia

 *E-mail: eprlab@kemsu.ru


The decomposition of crystalline alkali nitrates under UV (253.7 nm) irradiation and both g and X irradiation has been studied in detail. The diamagnetic products (NO2- and ONOO-) are formed in both cases and paramagnetic centers (NO3, NO2, NO32-, On-) are registered under the g and X irradiation additionally. The products formation occurs in the bulk of crystals. The goal of the present work is to determine the products formed under VUV irradiation of crystalline alkali nitrates. The absorptivity of alkali nitrate crystals at this wavelength is ~105 cm-1 therefore it can be argued that the photolysis occurs in thin surface layer.

Alkali nitrate crystals were grown by slow evaporation from saturated aqueous solutions. Crystals were irradiated by a Xe-excimer ark (172 nm). The ESR spectra of the irradiated crystals were registered by RE-1306 X-band spectrometer at 77 K and 300 K. The optical and infrared absorption spectra were registered at room temperature by means of a “Shimadzu UV-2450” and FSM 1201 spectrophotometers, respectively. To achieve good signal-to-noise ratio the results of 250 scans were accumulated and averaged.

The diamagnetic products (NO2- and ONOO-) were formed under VUV irradiation at both 77 K and 300 K of crystalline alkali nitrates based on the optical and infrared absorption spectra. No paramagnetic centers were observed in photolysed at 300 K the samples, but О and О3 were registered in ESR spectra of sodium, potassium, and caesium nitrates photolysed at 77 K. In addition radical NO2 is formed under VUV irradiation of crystalline rubidium nitrate.

Taking into account the fact that the band gap for all nitrates is ~8 eV it can be assumed that the energy of light quanta is insufficient for NO3 and NO32– paramagnetic centers formation. On the other hand, the anionic impurities introduced to alkali nitrate crystals can dissociate to result in paramagnetic centers formation. The impurities are the nitrite ion and the peroxynitrite ion formed under photolysis. It can be assumed that the paramagnetic centers are the products of their dissociation in thin surface layer. The detailed mechanism of the paramagnetic centers formation is discussed.



Vladimir Anan’ev, Mikhail Miklin, Valery Pak, Denis Yakubik

Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo, Russia

Section: Radiation Effects

Potassium picrate – C6H2(NO2)3OK is ionic high-energy material which can be used as explosives. Besides, it slowly destroys under irradiation to form both paramagnetic and diamagnetic products. The goal of this investigation is to study the formation of paramagnetic centers in potassium picrate under g-irradiation.

The crystals were grown by slowly evaporating from the saturated water solution at 60 0C. They were in the form of needles with the size 15´3´4 mm and the weight 20-30 mg.

The samples were irradiated with 60Co g-rays at ~310 K. The dose rate 1.4 Gy/s was measured with a Fricke dosimeter, assuming the radiation chemical yield of Fe3+ to be equal to 15.6 (100 eV)-1. The dose absorbed by the sample was calculated using the mass energy absorption coefficients. The irradiated samples were stored at room temperature and then studied. The EPR spectra of the irradiated crystals were recorded on a Bruker EPR spectrometer at 300 K. For absolute g-value determinations a calibration using DPPH (g = 2.0036) was used.

Complex spectrum is registered in EPR spectrum of irradiated crystal. It consists of the following paramagnetic centers:

The mechanism for the paramagnetic centers formation under molecular exciton decay formed under g-irradiation of crystalline potassium picrate is discussed.



Elena Pylypchuk, Emilia Domina

R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

Section: Radiation Effects

There is an objective assessment of the uncertainty of the influence of physical and chemical factors on the human genome. The chemical agents include co-mutagens, which have no own mutagenic properties, can essentially intensify effects of known mutagens, including radiation-induced effects of low doses. As co-mutagen selected ascorbic acid. The main goal is investigate the effect of ascorbic acid on the formation of radiation-induced effects in the exposure of human blood lymphocytes at different stages of the cell cycle. Test system of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, metaphase analysis of chromosomal aberrations. Cells were cultivated according to the standard procedures with some modifications. Peripheral blood lymphocytes culture was exposed to x-ray radiation (0,3 Gy)  in G0- and S- phases of cell cycle. Immediately after the irradiation the culture was treated with ascorbic acid in concentrations of 20,0-80,0 µg/ml of blood. Cell culture irradiation in low dose (0,3 Gy) and treatment with ascorbic acid in therapeutic concentration (20,0 μg/ml of blood) resulted in radioprotective effect regardless of the the stage of the cell cycle, decreasing overall chromosome aberrations frequency as opposed to radiation effects. It has been established that post-irradiation effect of ascorbic acid upon the peripheral blood lymphocytes culture in concentrations of  80,0 μg/ml, which exceeding therapeutic concentration value  4 times correspondingly, increased overall chromosome aberrations frequency 1,4 times compared with irradiation effect in a low dose (0,3 Gy). This bears evidence of ascorbic acid co-mutagenic activity in the range of concentrations exceeding therapeutic values.  Compared with G0-phase, co-mutagenic effect of ascorbic acid (80,0 μg/ml) in S-phase reflected in increasing frequency of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in 1,5 times. Since the S stage (synthesis of DNA) is the most radioresistant, the increase indicates damage chromosomes of ascorbic acid impact on the efficiency of repair processes. The results come as solid proof of the repair processes dominant role in some drugs co-mutagenic activity display, in this case, at the combined effect of radiation (additional) radiation levels and of ascorbic acid. The formation of co-mutagenic effects of ascorbic acid depends on its concentration  and the efficiency of repair processes.



Alexander Ogurtsov, Olga Bliznjuk

National Technical University , Kharkov, Ukraine

Section: Radiation Effects

Material modification by electronic excitation is an important prerequisite for many novel technological applications in material and surface engineering, photochemistry, micro- and nanoelectronics. The basis for the electronically induced lattice modification is a localization of the excitation energy mainly during exciton self-trapping followed by the energy transfer to the material surroundings. Rare-gas crystals (wide-gap van der Waals atomic crystals) are widely used as the model systems in fundamental investigations and as the working media of particle detectors and positron moderators. Using synchrotron radiation at HASYLAB (DESY, Hamburg, Germany) the spectroscopic properties of radiation-induced processes in rare-gas crystals were well studied recently. But the methods of chemical kinetics of solids were not applied up to now to analysis of the processes of rare-gas crystals modification by irradiation. In the present study we apply these methods for numerical simulation of defect processes in irradiated crystals and harness the rich luminescence spectra of rare-gas crystals for real-time monitoring of their crystal structure.

Initial increase of the intensity of the ’defect’ luminescence during irradiation reflects the accumulation of stable long-lived point defects (Frenkel pairs) in the lattice as a result of exciton creation and self-trapping in the consecutive process E + ⇔ MTE → D, where E is the mobile excitation (free exciton), which is trapped at trapping center T (lattice imperfection) and forms an excited metastable trapped center (MTE). The time dependence of ’defect’ luminescence intensity under steady-state conditions may be expressed in form I(t) = I0 + K·t·(L + t)–1, where I0 = I(0) is the initial intensity; K is the saturation value of (I(t) – I0); L ~ nEnT(nMTE)–1 is a characteristic constant of a sample, n – concentration. At high defect concentration, nD, the exciton self-trapping near existing defects will not produce the separate point defects, but will induce the aggregation of defects in the process MTE + D  DD. The time dependence in this case may be expressed in form I(t) = K·L’·(L’ + t)–1, where L’ ~ nMTEnD(nDD)–1. The best fit of our data results in values K = 1650 cps, L = 2.4×103 s, L’ = 4.8×104 s for particular case of solid Xe.



Igor Alekseev

V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

Section: Radiation Effects

For production of 57Co recoil nuclei the reaction 56Fe(d,n) was used. Behind the iron target (56Fe, isotopic enrichment - 93%, the thickness - 20 mcm) in the course of a beam of deuterons was placed an aluminum foil (chemical purity - not less than 99.99%, the thickness - 20 mcm), which was used to collect the recoil nuclei. The maximum energy of the 57Co recoil nuclei was not more than 0.2 MeV, their range in aluminum - about 0.14 mcm.

The irradiation of aluminum (number of displaced atoms within the sample - more than 2500 vacancies/ion) is accompanied by a structural disordering and amorphization of the crystal lattice near the Mossbauer atom. The Emission Mossbauer spectra is a broad doublet (Г = 0.46 mm/s), which is responsible 57Co-vacancy complexes [1].


[1] K Sassat, H Goto and Y Ishida Structure of 57Co-vacancy complexes in aluminium // J. Phys. F: Met. Phys. , 1984, 14, pp. 2817-2829.



José Pinela1, Amilcar L. Antonio2, Lillian Barros2, Sandra Cabo Verde3, Ana Maria Carvalho2, M. Beatriz P.P. Oliveira4, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira2

1CIMO - Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal; REQUIMTE/LAQV, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Portugal, Bragança, Portugal
2CIMO - Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal, Bragança, Portugal
3C2TN - Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, IST, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal, Lisboa, Portugal
4REQUIMTE/LAQV, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Portugal, Porto, Portugal

Section: Radiation Effects

Food irradiation is a treatment that involves subjecting in-bulk or packaged food to a controlled dose of ionizing radiation, with a clearly defined goal. It has been used for disinfestation and sanitization of food commodities and to retard postharvest ripening and senescence processes, being a sustainable alternative to chemical agents [1]. Doses up to 10 kGy are approved by several international authorities for not offering negative effects to food from a nutrition and toxicology point of view [2]. However, the adoption of this technology for food applications has been a slow process due to some misunderstandings by the consumer who often chooses non-irradiated foods. In this study, the effects of the ionizing radiation treatment on physical, chemical and bioactive properties of dried herbs and its suitability for preserving quality attributes of fresh vegetables during cold storage were evaluated.

The studied herbs, perennial spotted rockrose (Tuberaria lignosa (Sweet) Samp.) and common mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.) were freeze-dried and then irradiated up to 10 kGy in a Cobalt-60 chamber. The selected vegetables, watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) and buckler sorrel (Rumex induratus Boiss. & Reut.) were rinsed in tap water, packaged in polyethylene bags, submitted to irradiation doses up to 6 kGy and then were stored at 4 ºC for a period of up to 12 days. Physical, chemical and bioactive parameters of irradiated and non-irradiated samples were evaluated using different methodologies; the colour was measured with a colorimeter, individual chemical compounds were analyzed by chromatographic techniques, antioxidant properties were evaluated using in vitro assays based on different reaction mechanisms, and other quality analyses were performed following official methods of analysis.

The irradiation treatment did not significantly affect the colour of the perennial spotted rockrose samples, or its phenolic composition and antioxidant activity [3]. Medium doses preserved the colour of common mallow and a low dose did not induce any adverse effect in the organic acids profile. The green colour of the irradiated vegetables was maintained during cold storage; but the treatment had pros and cons in other quality attributes. The 2 kGy dose preserved free sugars and favoured polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) while the 5 kGy dose favoured tocopherols and preserved the antioxidant properties in watercress samples. The 6 kGy dose was a suitable option for preserving PUFA and the ω-6/ω-3 fatty acids ratio in buckler sorrel samples. This comprehensive experimental work allowed selecting appropriate processing doses for the studied plant foods in order to preserve its quality attributes and edibility.


Acknowledgments: Ministério da Agricultura, Portugal (Project PRODER/FEADER – AROMAP) for financial support of the work, and Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT, Portugal) for financial support to CIMO (PEst-OE/AGR/UI0690/2014), REQUIMTE (UID/QUI/50006/2013), C2TN (RECI/AAG-TEC/0400/2012), J. Pinela (SFRH/BD/92994/2013) and L. Barros (SFRH/BPD/107855/2015).



[1] J. Pinela, I.C.F.R. Ferreira, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2015, In press

[2] WHO Technical Report Series 890, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999

[3] J. Pinela, A.L. Antonio, L. Barros, J.C.M. Barreira, A.M. Carvalho, M.B.P.P. Oliveira, C. Santos-Buelga, I.C.F.R. Ferreira. RSC Advances, 2015, 5, 14756-14767



Eliana Pereira1, Andreia I. Pimenta2, Ricardo C. Calhelha3, Amilcar L. Antonio3, Sandra Cabo Verde2, Lillian Barros3, Celestino Santos-Buelga4, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira3

1CIMO - Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal; GIP-USAL, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Salamanca, España, Bragança, Portugal
2C2TN - Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, IST, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal, Lisboa, Portugal
3CIMO - Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal, Bragança, Portugal
4GIP-USAL, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Salamanca, España, Salamanca, Spain

Section: Radiation Effects

Irradiation has been increasingly recognized as an effective decontamination technique, also ensuring the chemical and organoleptic quality of medicinal and aromatic plants [1]. The use of medicinal plants in the prevention and/or treatment of several diseases has revealed satisfactory results as anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anti-cancer and antioxidant agents [2].  The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the cytotoxic properties and phenolic composition of Thymus vulgaris L. and Menta x piperita L. (methanolic extracts).  Phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, while the cytotoxicity of the samples was assessed in MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) cell lines, as also in non-tumor cells (PLP2). Thirteen and fourteen phenolic compounds were detected in T. vulgaris and M. piperita, respectively, but none of them was affected by the irradiation up to a dose of 10 kGy. However, despite there were no changes in the cytotoxic properties of irradiated peppermint samples in tumor cell lines, the thyme samples irradiated with 10 kGy showed higher cytotoxicity in comparison with the samples submitted to other doses (2 and 5 kGy). This highlights that 10 kGy can be a suitable dose to ensure the sanitary treatment, without modifying the bioactive composition and properties of these aromatic plants.


The authors are grateful to Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT, Portugal) for financial support to CIMO (PEst-OE/AGR/UI0690/2014), C2TN (RECI/AAG-TEC/0400/2012), R.C. Calhelha (SFRH/BPD/ BPD/68344/2010) and L. Barros (SFRH/BPD/107855/2015). The authors are also grateful to Ministério da Agricultura, Portugal (Project PRODER/FEADER – AROMAP), for financial support of the work and for E. Pereira and A.I. Pimenta grants, and to “MaisErvas - Aromáticas e Medicinais” for providing the samples.



[1] Roberts, P.B. 2014. Food irradiation is safe: Half a century of studies. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 105, 78-82.

[2] Adebayo S.A., Dzoyem, J.P., Shai, L.J. and Eloff, J.N. 2015. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of 25 plant species used traditionally to treat pain in southern African. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. DOI 10.1186/s12906-015-0669-5



Elena Savchenko1, Ivan Khyzhniy1, Sergey Uyutnov1, Mikhail Bludov1, Andrei Barabashov1, Galina Gumenchuk2, Vladimir Bondybey2

11Institute for Low Temperature Physics & Engineering NASU, Kharkov, Ukraine
22Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II TUM, München, Germany

Section: Radiation Effects



Interest in research of radiation effects in nitrogen solids is associated with their presence in interstellar and solar systems as well as their applications as systems for energy storage, moderators, matrices in radiation chemistry. Moreover, the information on behavior of N2 films under irradiation is of importance to ensure safe operation of particle accelerators which contain superconducting magnets operating at LHe temperature. Desorption of the condensed residual gases (mainly N2) may affect the operation of accelerators.

Despite a long history of solid N2 spectroscopy the problem of charged species generation and their reactions still remains to be solved. First evidence of charged centres generation in pre-irradiated solid N2 was a finding thermally stimulated exoelectron emission TSEE [1]. Later on creation of ionic species N3+ [2] and N4+ [3] in electron-bombarded solid N2 was reported.

Here we present our recent findings on the radiation-induced modification of N2 solids with a focus on the generation and accumulation of charged centers and electronically induced phenomena. We used luminescence methods: cathodoluminescence (CL) and developed by our group nonstationary luminescence (NsL), as well as optical and current activation spectroscopy methods. Correlated in real time measurements of thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) and luminescence (TSL) or optically stimulated exoelectron emission (OSEE) and luminescence (OSL) were performed. The total desorption yield was detected by pressure measuring above the sample.

Monitoring of the CL spectra temporal evolution and concurrent measurements of optical and current relaxation emissions revealed stabilization and accumulation of radiation-induced centers – ionic (N3+, N4+, N3-), trapped electrons and radicals (N, N3). The neutralization reactions: N4+ + e- → N2* + N2 + ΔE1 and N3+ + e- → N2 + N* + ΔE2 are accompanied by the energy release which is spent for defect formation and desorption. Spectroscopic evidence of the excited N2* molecule and N* atom desorption was obtained for the first time. The key role of N3+ center dissociative recombination in generation of N radicals is suggested pointing to a prominent part played by the radiation-induced charged species in the energy storage and relaxation processes.


[1] I. Khyzhniy, E. Savchenko , S. Uyutnov, G. Gumenchuk, A. Ponomaryov, V. Bondybey. Rad. Meas. 45 (2010) 353.

[2] Y-J. Wu, H-F. Chen, S-J. Chuang, T-P. Huang, Astrophys. J. 768 (2013) 83.

      [3] E.V. Savchenko, I.V. Khyzhniy, S.A. Uyutnov, A.P. Barabashov, G.B. Gumenchuk, M.K. Beyer,  A.N.       Ponomaryov, and V.E. Bondybey, J. Phys. Chem. A 119 (2015) 2475.



Nadezhda Shimalina, Elena Antonova, Vera Pozolotina

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, Ekaterinburg, Russia

Section: Radiation Effects

We carried out a comparative study of the common plantain (Plantago major L.) seed progeny from populations exposed for a long time to radioactive or chemical contamination. Radioactive contaminated area (East-Ural Radioactive Trace – EURT) was formed in 1957 as a result of an accident at the ‘‘Mayak’’ Production Association (Urals, Russia). Currently, 90Sr is the main contaminant in this area. In addition the EURT territory was contaminated by 137Cs in 1967 after the silt and fine sand transfer from the Lake Karachay shores used as open storage for radioactive waste (Nikipelov et al. 1989; Aarkrog et al. 1997).

Heavy metal contaminated area is situated nearby a large industrial center – Nizhniy Tagil Iron and Steel Works (NTMK). The plots were established at different distances from the steel-making center. Polymetallic dust and SO2 are the main emission components. Background populations were situated beyond contaminated zones. At all sites vegetation consists of cereal and multi-herbaceous meadows of secondary origin.

Working hypotheses: 1) viability of P. major seed progeny, formed in the gradient of radiation or chemical exposure is lower than in the background populations; 2) adaptive potential of the seed progeny from the contaminated areas is higher than in the background samples; 3) mutability of plants from contaminated areas exceeds the background level.

It was found that the offsprings of plants from the NTMK area had low viability, but the seedlings were resistant to the influence of acute γ-irradiation (additional new factor) and heavy metals (habitual factor). In samples from the EURT area high seed viability was combined with decreased resistance to provocative heavy metal and radiation exposure. Pre-adaptation effects were not found in these samples from the contaminated areas. Experiments with growing plants from different populations in plot-culture revealed that morphosis of generative organs were inherent for the EURT samples mainly and the samples from the NTMK area were characterized by anomalies of vegetative organs.

This work was financial supported by RFBR (project №15-04-01023) and the Federal Program for Leading Scientific Schools Support (SS-6546.2016.4).



Binh Nguyen Van, Quynh Tran Minh, Diep Tran Bang, Sang Hoang Dang, Thao Hoang Phuong, Thom Nguyen Thi

Hanoi Irradiation Center, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, Hanoi, Vietnam

Section: Radiation Effects

Low molecular weight (Mw) xanthans were prepared by gamma Co-60 irradiation at both dry and paste-like states with various doses. The viscosity average molecular weight (Mv) of irradiated xanthan gradually decreased with increasing of radiation dose. Its Mv slowly reduced to 1.8 × 103 kDa from 1.1 × 104 kDa of non-irradiated xanthan by irradiation at 500 kGy in solid state, and quickly reduced to 5.3 × 102 kDa by irradiation at 50 kGy in paste-like. However, viscosity of the irradiated xanthan still high enough for utilization as bio-adhensive polymer. Therefore, the low Mw xanthans prepared by gamma irradiation were used to improve the effectiveness of foliar fertilizer, and effects of the irradiated xanthans to development of seedlings were also investigated with maize and soybean. The results indicated that not only irradiated xanthan, but also non-irradiated xanthan can promote the development of seedlings as iddiated by increasing of plant height, root length and fresh biomass.



Iryna Kovalchuk, Mechyslav Gzhegotskyi, Vasyl Dukach

Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine

Section: Radiation Effects

It is known that maintaining the structural and functional status of cellular membranes is significantly provided by the homeostasis system of membrane phospholipids that undergo changes among the first under the influence of low doses of radiation.

The aim of the study comprised an analysis of the nature of changes in fatty acid composition of phospholipids in blood plasma, liver and myocardium of rats, exposed to ionizing radiation.

Researches were conducted on the mature male rats with adherence to general ethical principles of humane treatment to experimental animals. The total exposure in rats was once performed at the dose of 2 Gy. Fatty acid composition of phospholipids was determined by the gas chromatographic method.

         It has been established that radiation exposure after 24 hours leads to a significant increase in the level of saturated fatty acids of phospholipids in plasma and liver, and the tendency to an increase of their content in the myocardium. In all investigated tissues levels of short chain saturated fatty acids, such as caprylic (C8:0), capric (C10:0), lauric (C12:0), and myristic (C14:0) acid, increased to the greatest extent. The content of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids, which are dominant compounds among saturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipid composition, increases in plasma and liver, and almost has no changes in the myocardium. On the second day of post-radiation period a decrease of monounsaturated fatty acids content in plasma and liver was observed. There were also changes in the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In all tissues in the largest extent were reduced contents of eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) docosapentaenoic (C22:5)  docosatrienoic acid (C22:3) etc., that might be caused by the involvement of these and other unsaturated fatty acids in the lipoperoxidation that were confirmed previously by our studies. The tissue specificity of changes in the fatty acid spectrum were generally detected. It was established that on the 3rd day after the radiation exposure, the level of some fatty acid of phospholipids tends to recovery, in accordance with the phase changes, characteristic for typical phases of adaptation syndrome development.

Considering the received research outcomes, the effect of radiation exposure at the dose of 2 Gy after 1 and 3 days results in a modification of fatty acid composition, which is mainly associated with an increased saturation index and in the highest degree expressed in the liver tissue, and the lowest one – in the myocardium. These effects accordingly change the viscosity of bilipid layer, and ultimately the membrane-dependent functions of cellular and subcellular structures, that requires a pathogenesis-substantiated correction.



Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić1, Ayse Aroguz2, Milena Marinović-Cincović3, Gordana Marković4, Ljiljana Korugic-Karasz5, Vesna Teofilović1, Jelena Tanasić1

1University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Novi Sad, Serbia
2Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey
3University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Science Vinča, Belgrade, Serbia
4Tigar A.D., Pirot, Serbia
5University of Massachusetts, Amherst, United States

Section: Radiation Effects

Elastomers based on nitrile butadiene rubbers (NBR) are generally resistant to fuel, oil, and other chemicals (the more nitrile within the polymer, the higher the resistance to oils but the lower flexibility of the elastomeric product). This materials are using in the automotive industry for the fabrication of oil handling hoses, seals, self-sealing fuel tanks, and in the nuclear industry for protective gloves, and are able to withstand a temperature range from −40 to 110°C. Materials based on chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM) are using for inflatable and folding kayakes, as roofing materials, for the decking of modern snowshoes, but due to its poor compression set, thus the dynamic sealing applications are not recommended. The degradation of elastomers is accelerated by the transfer of energy under chemical attack, mechanical stress, and irradiation exposure. In general the progress in oxidative degradation depends on several factors, i.e. absorbed dose, dose rate, chemistry of material, exposure environment, and previous state of ageing. Elastomer based on rubber blends are technologically important materials as they achieve the best compromise in physical properties, procesability and cost. The main focus in the study was to estimate the effect of gamma irradiation on reinforced elastomers based on two network precursors (NBR and CSM). The content of nano silica particles was varied (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 phr). Irradiation of the vulcanisates has been performed in air in the Co60 radiation sterilization unit with the dose rate of 10 kGy h–1 and different absorbed dose (100, 200, and 400 kGy). The characterization of aged materials has been done using stress-strain measurements and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Tensile strength, modulus at 100% elongation and hardness increased, but elongation at break decreased with increasing irradiation dose. The use of nano particles improved the mechanical properties and swelling resistance in toluene after gamma irradiation for all samples. Consequences of high energy irradiation are crosslinking and chain scissions. After irradiation the elongation at break is controlled by the shortest chains in network architecture whereas the increase in the active chains average length is controlling the material modulus.



Gordana Marković1, Milena Milena Marinović-Cincović2, Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić3, Vojislav Jovanović4, Suzana Samaržija-Jovanović4, Ljiljana Tanasić5, Radmila Radičević3

1Tigar A.D., Pirot, Serbia
2University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Science Vinča, Belgrade, Serbia
3University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Novi Sad, Serbia
4University of Priština, Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics, Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia
5High Agricultural School of Vocational Studies, Šabac, Serbia

Section: Radiation Effects

Elastomers are very often used in severe environments, for instance, in nuclear power plants, where they may be degraded by high-energy radiation and heat.  The ageing behaviour of materials using in different equipment is very important. Elastomers based on chlorosulphonated polyethyelene (CSM) are using for cable jacketing materials has excellent radiation resistance needed in nuclear power stations. In the current work the influence of γ-irradiation dose (100, 200 and 400 kGy) on the ageing of reinforced blends based on CSM, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and natural rubber (NR) has been evaluated.  The content of silica in CSM/SBR and CSM/NR rubber blends was varied (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 phr).  The curing behaviour of compounds was estimated using the oscillating disk rheometer. The irradiation of elastomeric nano-composites has been performed in air in the Co 60 radiation sterilization unit with the dose rate of 10 kGy h–1 at ambient temperature. The thermal properties of materials were studied by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The mechanical properties (hardness, modulus at 100% elongation, tensile strength and elongation at break) were determined before and after g-irradiation. It has been observed the decrease in the elastic modulus and in the strain at break with an increasing irradiation. At higher doses the network chain scissions become the main degradation process and the crosslinked topology becomes irregular, and material contains more and more weak zones, which deteriorate the ultimate properties. The appearance of maximum radiation resistance in the rubber blend was attributed to the balancing of properties due to the crosslinking or the chain scission in the elastomeric networks.


Financial support for this study was granted by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Projects Numbers 45022 and 45020).




Slaviša Jovanović1, Gordana Marković2, Suzana Suzana Samaržija-Jovanović3, Milena Marinović-Cincović4, Vojislav Jovanović3, Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić5

1Mitas d.o.o, Ruma, Serbia
2Tigar A.D., Pirot, Serbia
3University of Priština, Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics, Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia
4University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Science Vinča, Belgrade, Serbia
5University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Novi Sad, Serbia

Section: Radiation Effects

Reinforcement of elastomers is of great importance for the structuring of materials in new technologies. Namely, adding the nano-fillers to the elastomers obtained from different types of rubber leads to an increase in the modulus of elasticity and to an improvement of key properties such as tensile strength and elongation, as well as abrasion resistance. Reinforcement of elastomers is a particularly complicated process if cross linked material contains more than one type of precursor cross linking. By creating a multi-phase system, characteristics of individual phases can be partly preserved or significantly changed due to the influence of intermolecular interactions. Therefore, the modern research and industrial practice of tire industry leaders are directed towards the use of existing starting polymers and the obtainment of new types of elastomeric materials based on new modified macromolecules. In this study the effect of radiation dose on the mechanical properties of ternary NR/BR/SBR (25/25/50) rubber blend reinforced with nano-silica (0–100 phr) has been investigated. The size of precipitated silica primary particles was 22 nm. The cure characteristics of compounds were assessed using the reometer with an oscillating disk. The mechanical properties (hardness, modulus at 100% elongation, tensile strength and elongation at break) and swelling degree were assessed before and after g-irradiation (100-600 kGy). In crosslinked materials based on NR/BR/SBR the values for tensile strength increased when the silica content increased up to 60 phr. Tensile strength, elongation at break and swelling degree are decreased, but hardness and cross linking density are increased with the increase of the irradiation dose.



Ângela Fernandes1, Amilcar L. Antonio2, M. Beatriz P.P. Oliveira3, Anabela Martins4, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira4

1CIMO - Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal; REQUIMTE, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Portugal, Bragança, Portugal
2CIMO - Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal; CTN/IST, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal, Bragança, Portugal
3REQUIMTE/LAQV - Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Portugal, Porto, Portugal
4CIMO - Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal, Bragança, Portugal

Section: Radiation Effects

Boletus edulis Bull: Fr. is an edible mushroom quite appreciated for its organoleptic and nutritional properties. However, the seasonality and perishability cause some difficulties in its distribution and marketing in fresh form; losses associated with this type of food during marketing can reach 40% [1]. Irradiation is recognized as a safe and effective method for food preservation, being used worldwide to increase shelf life of fresh and dehydrated products (e.g. fruits, vegetables and spices) [2]. In particular, gamma irradiation has already been applied to cultivated mushrooms (especially Agaricus, Lentinula and Pleurotus Genus) and proved to be an interesting conservation technology [3]. However, the studies with added-value wild species are scarce. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation on chemical and antioxidant properties of wild B. edulis, were evaluated. Fruiting bodies were obtained in Trás-os-Montes, in the Northeast of Portugal, in November 2012. The irradiation was performed in experimental equipment with 60Co sources at 1 and 2 kGy. All the results were compared with non-irradiated samples (control). Macronutrients and energy value were determined following official procedures of food analysis; fatty acids were analyzed by gas-chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection (GC-FID), while sugars and tocopherols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to refraction index (RI) and fluorescence detectors, respectively. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in the methanolic extracts by in vitro assays measuring DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Total phenolics were also determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The nutritional profiles were not affected in high extension. Fatty acids and sugars were slightly affected, decreasing with the increasing doses. The performed assays for antioxidant activity, indicate that irradiated samples tended to have lower scavenging activity and reducing power, but higher lipid peroxidation inhibition. Despite the detected differences in individual compounds, the results of nutritional parameters, the most relevant in terms of mushroom acceptability by consumers, were less affected, indicating an interesting potential of gamma-irradiation to be used as an effective conservation technology for the studied mushrooms.



Keywords: Boletus edulis, Chemical composition, Antioxidant activity; Gamma irradiation.



FCT and COMPETE/QREN/UE- strategic projects PEst-OE/AGR/UI0690/2014 (CIMO) and PEst-C/EQB/LA0006/2014 (REQUIMTE); grant SFRH/BD/76019/2011 to A. Fernandes.



[1] Lacroix, M.; Ouattara, B., 2000. Food Research International, 33, 719-724.

[2] Molins, R. (ed.), 2001. Wiley, New-York, USA.

[3] Fernandes, Â.; Barreira, J.C.M.; Antonio, A.L.; Santos, P.M.P.; Martins, A.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R., 2013. Food Research International, 54, 18-25.



Alexandra Demidova, Leonid Kessarinskiy

National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute)/Specialized Electronic Systems (SPELS), Moscow, Russia

Section: Radiation Effects

A comparative study of the radiation behavior of the various parties Hall sensors SS495A (p. Honeywell). Qualitative differences of the ionization pulse response when exposed to ionizing radiation. Fixed dose reduction resistance.



Andrii Barabashov, Elena Savchenko, Ivan Khyzhniy

B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Section: Radiation Effects

A.P. Barabashov, I.V. Khyzhniy, S.A. Uyutnov, E.V. Savchenko

B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, 61103 Kharkov, Ukraine


e-mail: apbarabashov@gmail.com


Desorption or sputtering is among the most intensively studied radiation-induced phenomena. The term electron-stimulated desorption describes physical and chemical changes caused in the surface region of a solid by bombardment with low-energy electrons. Radiation effects in solid N2 attract much attention in various areas of scientific researches including material and surface sciences, physical and chemical processes in interstellar space and solar system and also particle physics. Electronic desorption of solid nitrogen was studied under excitation with electrons, ions and photons [1]. Despite extensive studies the contribution of excited atoms into the desorption is still not well understood.

In the present paper radiation processes in the solid nitrogen irradiated with an electron beam were studied with special attention to the desorption of the excited atoms and its contribution to the electron-stimulated phenomena in general. The experiments were performed employing luminescence method and activation spectroscopy techniques – spectrally resolved thermally stimulated luminescence TSL and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission TSEE.

Atomic emissions were detected in the vacuum ultraviolet VUV range – the 4P1/2-5/24S3/2 transitions. They increased with respect to the bulk molecular emissions (the a’1Σu-→X1Σg+ and the A3Σu+→X1Σg+) in thin films (< 100 nm) and under irradiation by slower electrons which have less penetration depth. Moreover, the observed atomic emissions coincided with the gas phase lines within the experimental error. These findings indicate the connection of the emissions observed with the desorbing excited atoms. Analysis of the spectrally resolved TSL and TSEE suggests connection of the atomic desorption with electron-ion recombination reaction. One can expect for the azide radical cation N3+ strong tendency to dissociate via N2+N channel. Formation of N radicals in the bulk of solid N2 by this reaction was assumed in [2]. Thereby analysis of the VUV luminescence and relaxation emissions allowed us to observe formation of defects, dissociation of molecules into the atoms and the desorption of the excited atoms from the surface of solid nitrogen and also to define the electronic states of these atoms.


[1] R.E. Johnson, R.W. Carlson, T.A. Cassidy, and M. Fama, in: The Science of Solar System Ices, edited by M.S. Gudipati and J. Castillo-Rogez, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, Vol. 356 (Springer Science and Business Media, New York, 2012), chap. 17.

[2] E.V. Savchenko, I.V. Khyzhniy, S.A. Uyutnov, A.N. Ponomaryov, G.B. Gumenchuk and V.E. Bondybey, Low Temp. Phys. 39 (2013) 446.




Joanna Reszczyńska1, Ludwik Dobrzyński1, Krzysztof Fornalski2, Yehoshua Socol3

1National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock, Poland
2PGE EJ 1, Warsaw, Poland
3Falcon Analytics, Netanya, Israel

Section: Radiation Effects

Background: There exists vast number of studies of biological effects of ionizing radiation, mostly dedicated to radiation-induced cancers. Whereas the field of early effects is quite well understood, the low doses (below, say, 100 mGy) that may create only late or very late effects are a subject of on-going controversy between proponents of LNT and hormesis.

Methods: Estimation of a cancer risk for low doses or ionizing radiation requires not only rigorous statistical approach to mathematical analysis of already collected data. One should in parallel develop biology-based models who could take into account essential processes that take place in irradiated cells. 

Results: We present rather simple approach which can show what could be expected for the dose-effect dependence in the colony of cells.  The modeling starts with rather simple consideration of how many cells can transform to cancerous ones, once mutations in them starts. An influence of both, the dose and dose-rate, is considered. In order not to loose simplicity we did not consider many purely geometrical effects in cancer cells development. This is planned for the future.

Conclusions: The general pattern emerging from the modeling indicates sigmoidal shape of the dose-effect curve as the most likely one. It is well known that the hazard functions calculated for at high doses are of this type. The mathematics shows, however, the origin of such dependence irrespective of the doses considered. The sigmoidal dependence can be  further modified by such mechanisms as an adaptive response and/or bystander effect.



Armen Sogoyan, Georgiy Davydov, Aleksey Artamonov, Anna Kolosova, Yuriy Ozhegin, Anna Kameneva

NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia

Section: Radiation Effects

A technological process of microelectronic devices may sometimes be changed by a manufacturer without any notification. These changes barely affect the electrical and functional parameters, but may come out strongly under the influence of destabilizing factors such as ionizing radiation. Therefore, all the microelectronic devices obtained by the customer should be tested both within the incoming inspection using most of the electrical parameters and within the radiation test.

The process design kits (PDK) are widely used in semiconductor device fabrication. The same PDK may be utilized by a manufacturer in different electronic devices for various purposes. At the same time, PDKs are trade secrets of developers and the PDK of one manufacturer may differ from the similar PDK of another manufacturer.

Therefore, the specific electrical parameters of an IC, for example volt-ampere characteristic of input and output circuits, may be used as identification features of a certain manufacturer. Consequently, additional identification procedures, within the incoming inspection, may be performed utilizing radiation tests with monitoring of those electrical parameters.

In this work, we propose a method based on incoming inspection combined with radiation tests. This method allows us to reveal the fact of changes in the manufacturer's fabrication processing by comparison of electrical test results of several lots of the ICs. Simultaneously, the set of electrical chracteristics were confirmed to be identification features of a certain manufacturer.



Svetlana Sorokina1, Svetlana Zaichkina1, Olga Rozanova1, Sergey Romanchenko1, Alsu Dyukina1, Helena Smirnova1, Alexander Shemyakov1, Vladimir Balakin2

1Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics of the RAS, Pushchino, Russia
2“Physical-Technical Center” of P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the RAS, Protvino, Russia

Section: Radiation Effects

Proton therapy of tumors has a great number of advantages compared to standard beam therapy with usage of gamma rays and electrons and it is actively developing worldwide.

The aim of this work is the search for optimal conditions to irradiation of animals on proton accelerator in vivo (ways of dosimetry and narcotization, position in the beam, beam properties and dose distribution) and getting dose dependencies for cytogenetic damage in bone marrow, thymus and spleen cellularity, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in whole blood.

Male SHK mice aged 2 months were irradiated by 200 MeV pulsed pencil proton beam at the therapeutic proton synchrotron accelerator “Prometeus” (Russia) in dose range from 0.1 to 2 Gy at Bragg’s peak with impulse duration of 200 ms. Sham-irradiated animals were used as controls. All animals were housed per cage with ad libitum access to water and food pellets. Proton therapy dose control is carried out by means of clinical dosimeter on the basis of diamond detector (Russia), the gafchromic EBT2 films (USA) and thermoluminescent dosimeters (Russia) that were used for beam profile verification. For comparison, other group of mice was irradiated with X-rays (1 Gy/min, Russia) at the same dose range. The cytogenetic damage in the bone marrow was assessed using the micronucleus test, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in whole blood using luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, and the cellularity of the thymus and the spleen, by mass. The survival of animals and the tumor growth rate were estimated by the standard method.

It was discovered that: 1) the level of cytogenetic damage in the studied dose range was considerably lower comparing to X-ray irradiation; 2) the usage of hypnotics for animals’ immobilization during the irradiation procedure does not influence the lymphoid organs’ index; 3) irradiation of mice in the range of 0.5, 1 and 2 Gy leads to considerable reduction of spleen index compared to not irradiated mice, however, the thymus index was not changed for certain; 4) during the X-ray irradiation of mice  at the same dose range the reduction of thymus and spleen index at the doses of 1.5 and 2 Gy was discovered; 5) during the induction study ROS there were no differences found at the low and medium dose range of proton irradiation compared to X-ray irradiation.

 The most optimal conditions for the experiments on animals in vivo on proton therapeutic complex “Prometeus” were found during this research and, for the first time, dose dependencies for cytogenetic damages yield in bone marrow, thymus and spleen cellularity, induction of ROS in mice’s whole blood were discovered.

This work was supported by the President Grant of the Russian Federation (project № СП-1461.2012.4).



Ercan yilmaz1, Ramazan lök1, Senol Kaya2, Huseyin karacali2

1Abant İzzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey
2Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversity, bolu, Turkey

Section: Radiation Effects

The semiconductor devices that operate in radiotherapy and space applications are exposed to a variety of radiation sources and their effects, depending on the particular application and its environment. The important problems for the devices used in irradiation environment is electrical device characteristics much more sensitive to irradiation. It is well-known that irradiation generate numbers of e-h pairs and defects in the structure. Hence, the device characteristics could be degraded. To solve this problem, the alternative materials must be investigated to improve the radiation resistance of devices used in state-of-art microelectronic technology. HfSiO4 maybe a good resistant material against radiation because of their excellent thermal stability. To investigate the total dose radiation response of the Hafnium Silicate structures, Hafnium silicates were deposited by RF sputtering system onto p-type (100) Si substrate and then annealed at 1000 0C in nitrogen environment for 30 minutes. The structures were confirmed by XRD measurements. The fabricated MOS devices were irradiated using a Co-60 gamma-ray source from 1 grays to 100 grays at a dose rate of 0.015 Gy/s. The variation in capacitance and conductance with increasing in irradiation dose is very small. This means that HfSiO4 structure is resistant devices to irradiation between 1 and 100 Grays. Therefore, this devices should be good to use in radiation environment. It is well known that MOS devices are extremely sensitive to ionizing radiation but Hafnium silicates MOS capacitor is not sensitive to ionizing radiation and it is radiation hard.



Ivan Khyzhniy

B.Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine

Section: Radiation Effects

Nitrogen is one of the most abundant elements in the Universe. Solid nitrogen is of high interest for condensed matter physics and chemistry, material and surface sciences, dosimetry and astrophysics. Nitrogen solids are used as moderators, scintillators, systems for energy storage and components of interstellar and solar systems. In view of this radiation effects induced by ionizing radiation in solid nitrogen attract special attention.

Despite detailed investigations of electronic excitations the properties and dynamics of charge states as well as accumulation of uncompensated charge remained unexplored. It was believed that charge states do not play an essential role. Energy relaxation processes in subsystems of charged and neutral species were considered separately ignoring their interconnection. The first detection of thermally stimulated exoelectron emission from solid nitrogen [1] pointed to a key role of charge species in energy relaxation in preliminary irradiated samples.

We developed special techniques for studying charge states in cryocrystals and performed correlated in real time measurements of spectrally resolved thermally stimulated luminescence and exoelectron emission in combination with cathodoluminescence.

Analysis of the cathodoluminescence spectra indicated the formation of neutral N3 centers. Simultaneous measurements of optical and current relaxation emissions revealed the formation and accumulation of radiation-induced ionic centers N3+ and N3-. The role of these species in energy relaxation cascades is discussed.


[1] I. Khyzhniy, E. Savchenko , S. Uyutnov, G. Gumenchuk, A. Ponomaryov, V. Bondybey. Rad. Meas. 45 (2010) 353.



Drago Jelovac 1, Melvil Sabani1, Drago Djordjevich2, Mirjana Jovanovich2, Branko Djurovich3, Ivan Boricich4, Novica Boricich4, Milan Petrovich1

1Clinic for Maxillofacial Surgery , School of Dental Medicine, Univesity of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
2Institute for Pathological Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Univeristy of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
3Clinic for Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Univeristy of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
4Institute for Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Univeristy of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Radiation Effects

Mobile or cell phones might have the potential to cause certain types of cancer or other health problems. Mobile phones are known to generate heat and emit radio frequency radiation in the form of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations in the range of 800-2,200 MHz, similar to many home appliances. Tissues nearest to where the phone is held can absorb this energy. Because cell phones are held directly against the head, there is a concern that cell phones may contribute to tumors of the brain, head and neck. These include benign tumors of the brain, malignant tumors of the brain, benign tumors of the hearing nerve, tumors of the salivary glands and oral cavity tumors as well as skin tumors of the head and neck region.

The aim of our study is to assses influence of mobile phone radiation for occurrence and development of head and neck tumors. The investigation was performed in multidiclipinary collaboration of pathophysiologists, patologists, neurosurgeons and maxillofacial surgerons. Particulary desingned questionarres (including mobile phone use habits and mobile phone caracteristics) are used for evaluation of risk factors for head and neck tumors. Hystopathollogical analysis was used to confirm influece of mobile phones to occurence and development of tumors. The study confirms presence of correlation between usage of mobile phones and occurrence and development of tumors of the head and neck. If cell phones caused head and neck cancer, we would expect to see an increase in these kinds of cancers as cell phone use has dramatically increased.



Piotr Szajerski, Andrzej Gasiorowski, Joanna Celinska, Henryk Bem

Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Wroblewskiego 15, 93-590 Lodz, Poland

Section: Radiation Effects

The main goal of radioactive waste processing and disposal is stabilization of radionuclides against accidental releasing into environment. Current technologies for radioactive waste disposal are based on multi-barier protection systems which are able to withstand effectively both environmental factors and destructive effects of radiation interacting with waste host matrices. Particular barriers are constructed by simultaneous application of materials designed for radionuclides immobilization, incorporation of layers limiting contact of the waste matrix with external environment and careful site selection providing safe geological conditions for deposited final waste forms. Materials used for these purposes must be designed and selected taking into account possible radionuclides transport phenomena: must effectively minimize possible surface and underground water infiltration and leaching of radionuclides from the host matrix, which may occur during accidental situations, as well as must ensure negligible radionuclides diffusion rate.
As host matrix materials many different composites are being used. Selection of the waste matrix materials depends mainly on the chemical properties, physical form and activity of the radioactive waste to be disposed. In case of low and intermediate level waste very often asphalts, bitumens, polymeric resins and cementitious composites are used.
Technologies used for radioactive waste immobilization are being continuously improved. One of such new group of materials being developed are mineral-polymeric materials based on sulfur polymers – sulfur polymer concrete (SPC). Sulfur polymer composites seem to be very attractive materials due to their properties: good mechanical behavior, very good properties of radionuclides retention and very low diffusivity within the SPC matrix.
However, elaboration of effective technology of radioactive waste immobilization in SPC requires detailed investigation of processes which occur in irradiated sulfur polymer matrices in high dose irradiation conditions. For this purpose series of radiation degradation experiments with sulfur polymers were conducted, to follow the processes induced by irradiation and their effects on the sulfur polymers properties. In this work we present results on influence of radiation degradation processes on mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the sulfur polymers. Sulfur polymers were degraded using both e-beam (6 MeV) and gamma (Co-60) radiation, within the dose ranges up to 20 MGy. Sulfur polymers properties were investigated using XRD, DSC, FTIR and SEM techniques.

This research project is supported by the Polish National Center for Research and Development (NCBR) under the Grant No.: GEKON1/O5/213122/26/2015 titled "Development and preparation for implementation of sulphur-polymer concrete manufacturing technology based on waste products from the energy and petrochemical sectors".



Vlado Antonic, Gurung Ganga, Isabel L. Jackson, Terez Shea-Donohue, Zeljko Vujaskovic

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Translational Radiation Sciences, Baltimore, United States

Section: Radiation Effects

Detonation of a 10 kiloton nuclear bomb in major urban setting will result in >1 million casualties, waste majority of whom will present with combined injuries. Combined injuries such as peripheral tissue trauma and radiation exposure trigger inflammatory events that lead to multiple organ dysfunctions (MOD) and death, in which intestines and lungs play crucial role. The objective of this study was to develop an animal model of combined peripheral tissue trauma (TBX) and total body radiation with 5% bone marrow shielding (IR) injury to probe the mechanisms leading to reduced survival.

Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to TBX10%, 12.6Gy total body irradiation with 5% bone marrow sparing (IR) or combination (TBX10%+IR). Experiments were conducted to evaluate mortality at 7 days (7d) post-IR. Additionally, scheduled euthanasia was performed to evaluate time course of the pathophysiological processes involved in combined injury (24h, 3d and 6/7d post-IR). Functional tests were performed to assess pulmonary function and gastrointestinal (GI) motility. After euthanasia, samples of the lungs and jejunum were collected for histology to assess tissue damage.

The results indicate higher lethality and shorter survival period in TBX10%+IR group when compared to animals in TBX10% or IR groups (24h, 7d and 6d respectively). IR alone did not have effects on the lungs and significantly impaired GI function on 3d and 6d after exposure.  As expected, in the animals that received severe trauma (TBX10%), we observed impairment in lung function and delay in gastrointestinal transit in first 3d, effects that were decreasing at later time points and were comparable to Sham group at 7d. When combined with radiation (TBX10%+IR) impairment of lungs and GI function was significantly augmented comparing to TBX10% and IR groups at 24h. Histological evaluation of jejunum indicates significant shortening of the villi with areas denuded from villi in TBX10% group at 3d and 7d, and in IR group at 6d similarly to TBX10%+IR group at 24h post exposure. Histological evaluation indicates that combine injury causes increase in alveolar edema with slight increase in lung cellularity.

Herein, we have for the first time described combined tissue trauma/radiation injury model that will allow for conduct of mechanistic studies in search for new therapeutic targets and will serve as platform for testing novel therapeutic interventions.



Dmitry Grodzinsky, Yulia Shylina, Svitlana Pchelovska, Sergii Litvinov, Darina Sokolova, Vladyslav Zhuk, Ludmila Tonkal, Anastasia Salivon, Olena Nesterenko

The Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

Section: Radiation Effects

The stimulating effects of ionizing radiation on the synthesis of some biologically active compounds, which are products of secondary metabolism of plants, have been demonstrated previously by a number of authors. Our aim was to study the possibility of pre-sowing acute irradiation of medicinal plants seeds producing flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides and essential oils in order to increase the yield of the extracted pharmacological mixtures. It was expected that this problem could be solved by radiostimulation of: 1) germination, 2) accumulation of vegetative mass per plant and per unit area of land cultivation; 3) increasing of the content of the sum of pharmacologically valuable secondary metabolites (SPVSM) per 1 g of the raw material dry weight; 4) increasing of percentage of various fractions of SPVSM according to the general amount of SPVSM. We have selected plants of interest from the point of view of favorable industrial significant cultivation in the forest steppe zone. Plants were as follows: Matricāria chamomīlla, Sílybum mariánum, Sālvia officinālis, Hypericum perforatum, Bidens tripartite. Based on the data on relative radioresistance we have chosen the experimental doses of X-ray irradiation: 5 Gy, 10 Gy, 20 Gy, 35 Gy, 50 Gy (dose rate 1,42 cGy/s). The study of dose dependence for some vegetative and phenological indicators confirmed the possibility of using pre-sowing irradiation of medicinal plants seeds with ionizing low LET radiation to stimulate the accumulation of vegetative mass of the stem aerial part. Dose curves had a peak that meant about stimulation dose or stimulating dose interval. These dose intervals for most vegetation parameters lied in the range of 5-20 Gy depending on the plant species, variety and seed quality. Irradiation with larger or smaller doses had no effect or changed sign of the effect (inhibition instead of stimulation). A similar relationship between dose and effect is typical for such phenological parameters as day of vegetation when plants start budding or flowering, and average duration of vegetation period. At high germination of original seed material (> 90%) exposure in the dose range 5-50 Gy inhibits germination. A preliminary study of Sílybum mariánum and Sālvia officinālis resistance under adverse conditions – water and temperature stress, indicated increasing in survival rate of radiation-stimulated plants compared with plants from untreated seeds. Direct dependence between radiation dose and the number of flowers on plants Matricāria chamomīlla has been also found. Analysis of the concentration of the sum of flavonoids in Matricāria chamomīlla flowers extracts showed a trend towards an increase in the relative mass fraction of flavonoids in the dry material from seeds irradiated with dose 10 Gy. Due to radiostimulation of flowering and increasing average weight of Matricāria chamomīlla flowers we have achieved increased general yield of flavonoids extract per plant and per unit area of crop. The effect has been observed for all doses from 5 to 50 Gy with a maximum at 10 Gy. It is planned to test the reproducibility of the results and determine the influence of radiation to the yield of SPVSM extracted from material of other medicinal plants.



Terez Shea-Donohue, Vlado Antonic, Neemesh Desai, Isabel L. Jackson, Zeljko Vujaskovic

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Translational Radiation Sciences, Baltimore, United States

Section: Radiation Effects

Total body irradiation (TBI) in a murine model with sparing 2.5-5% of the bone marrow (TBI/BM) allows for assessment of mortality and morbidity associated with the acute GI-ARS induced by TBI alone while preserving sufficient active BM for survival through the hematopoietic syndrome without transfusion.   Changes in the gut following high dose TBI in mice are well documented, but there is less information on the sequelae of events post TBI/BM.  
Aim:  To determine role of dose-related effects of TBI/BM on injury, mucosal barrier function and inflammation in the transition from acute (6-7 days) to chronic GI syndrome (≥20 days).
Methods:  Male C57Bl/LJ mice were exposed to 11-13 Gy TBI as a single uniform total body dose of x-ray irradiation with lead shielding of the tibia plus femur (TBI/BM5) or tibiae alone (TBI/BM2.5).  Mice were euthanized at times from 6 – 60 days post irradiation.  Sections of jejunum were prepared for histological evaluation, determination of TEER (index of permeability), and real-time PCR of tissue cytokines.  

Results:  The LD50/15 was 13Gy for PBI/BM5 and 11.8 Gy for TBI/BM2.5. Microscopic changes were evident in jejunum at LD50/15 doses with significant injury observed at 13 Gy for TBI/BM2.5 and at 14 Gy for TBI/BM5. This included denuded mucosa, extrusion of mucus, loss of crypts and increased depth of remaining crypts.  Although the microscopic appearance improved over time, these changes remained at LD50/15 doses at ≥20 days.  When compared to TEER measured in small intestine taken from control mice (51± 4Ω x cm2; n = 9), TEER in irradiated mice was reduced significantly (p<0.05) at day 7 for doses ≥13 Gy TBI/BM5 (32 ± 6Ω x cm2; n=4) and ≥12 Gy TBI/BM2.5 (22 ± 3.5Ω x cm2; n=7).  Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the small intestine was unchanged in response to the LD50/15 doses of TBI/BM2.5 and PBI/BM5.  In contrast, at 20 days post 12 Gy TBI/BM2.5, IFN-γ was increased 9-fold and IL-17A increased 16-fold.  At day 60 post 13 Gy TBI/BM5, IFN-γ was upregulated 10-fold and NOS-2 increased 40-fold.      

Conclusions:   Increased intestinal permeability (“leaky gut”) appears to be a reliable indicator of survivability as reduced TEER: 1) is observed for LD50/15 doses and higher; 2) is associated with significant mucosal damage; and 3) precedes the increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators.  These data suggest that acute changes in barrier function contribute to chronic GI syndrome.



Rohit Mehra

Dr. BR Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Jalandhar, India

Section: Radiation Effects

Uranium content in the ground water samples of Patiala and Fatehgarh districts of Punjab have been determined using LED Fluorimetry technique. Radiological and chemical risks have also been calculated for the uranium concentrations in the studied water samples. Uranium concentration in 80 water samples has been calculated from 16 different villages. The uranium concentration in the studied water samples vary from 3.92 to 17.98 μg l-1. The uranium content in all these samples have been found to less than the recommended safe limit of 30 μg l-1 (WHO, 2011). The mean value of Excess cancer risk from the ingestion of uranium is 5.5 x 10-4. The Lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and Hazard quotient vary from 0.22 to 1 μg kg-1 day-1 and from 0.36 to 1.66 respectively. 




Emilia Domina, Elena Pylypchuk

Institution: R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

Section: Radiation Effects


The radiation-induced destabilization of human genome is potentially oncogenic and increase of radiation sensitivity comparing to its average population values is a risk factor of radiation carcinogenesis.  The main goal is definition of appearance of chromosome aberrations in irradiated lymphocytes healthy donors and cancer patients at low dose of ionizing radiation and the concentration of co-mutagen. Test system of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) treated in vitro with subsequent metaphase analysis of chromosomal aberrations has been used. Cells were exposed to х-ray radiation at low dose (0,3 Gy) and treated with verapamil (Vp) (1,0 and 4,0 µg/ml of blood).Our studies for the first time showed the effect of co-mutagen Vp on the formation of radiation-induced chromosomal rearrangements in human somatic cells. We have demonstrated that V does not essentially influence the level of radiation-induced damages of chromosomes in PBL healthy donors at therapeutic concentrations (1,0μg/ml of blood). Application of Vp in concentration of 4,0 μg/ml of blood, potentiates damaging effect of radiation due to increase of overall frequency of chromosome aberrations in ~ 1,5 times compared with effect of exposure to radiation of PBL alone. Vp at therapeutic concentrations decreases the frequency of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations 1,3 times in cells of cancer patients.  Vp at a concentration of 4.0 µg/ml also increased the damaging effect of low doses of radiation in 1,2 times in irradiated cells of cancer patients.

Formation of co-mutagenic effects of Vp in irradiated cells healthy donors and cancer patients at low dose radiation depends on their concentration. We assume that the detected co-mutagenic effect promotes the development of chromosomal instability and thus increases a of carcinogenesis risk.

Arkadiusz Mandowski1, Rafał Sobota2, Ewa Mandowska1, Miroslaw Kornatka2

1Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, ul. Armii Krajowej 13/15, Częstochowa, Poland
2Institute of Power Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Częstochowa, Poland

Section: Radiation Effects

Electrical properties of insulators are largely determined by the energy structure of the crystal lattice defects. Lattice defects give rise to localized electronic levels inside the energy gap of the insulator. These energy levels may act as charge carrier traps or recombination centers depending on the value of the activation energy [1]. Trap structure of the ceramic insulators of medium voltage power networks were studied using thermoluminescence (TL) method in the temperature range 300 – 600 K. Prior the measurements the samples taken from the insulators were irradiated using 90Sr/90Y beta source with activity of 37 MBq. Various parts of the insulator were studied: core, outer core and glaze. The samples were prepared as chopped pieces of different shape but similar masses. The measurements were performed in a vacuum chamber equipped with a heating control system. Luminescence was recorded using bialkaline photomultiplier working in the photon counting mode with appropriated electronics and custom made software [2].

TL study revealed a complex structure of the measured glow curves. Usually they consist of several overlapping peaks indicating the presence of at least a few traps and several recombination centers, whose parameters depend on the type of insulator under study. TL kinetics was analysed using Randall-Wilkins (first order) equation. Nonlinear deconvolution was made using GENOR software [3,4].

Acknowledgements. This work was partially supported by National Science Centre grant no. DEC-2012/07/B/ST8/03890.



[1]  R. Chen, S. W. S. McKeever „Theory of Thermoluminescence and Related Phenomena“, World Scientific, Singapore, 1997.

[2]  R. Sobota, A. Mandowski, E. Mandowska, „Luminescencja izolatorów ceramicznych sieci energetycznych średnich napięć”, Elektronika - konstrukcje, technologie, zastosowania, nr. 11, p. 109-111, Sigma - Not, Warszawa, 2012

[3]  A. Mandowski and J. Świątek  "Comparison of some models for nonlinear fitting analysis of TSC measurements" J. Electrostatics 51-52, p.186-192, 2001

[4]  A. Mandowski and J. Świątek  "On the applicability of GOK model for TSC relaxation" IEEE Trans. Dielectrics EI, 8 (3) 469-471, 2001



Emanuele Calabrò, Salavatore Magazù

University of Messina, Messina, Italy

Section: Radiation Effects


Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the effects of microwaves (MWs) radiation emitted by a mobile phone during a call on two typical proteins: bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin (Mb), that are characteristic in some organic functions of livings. The reason of our investigation is also related to  previous studies that concluded that more studies concerning health effects by mobile phone radiation are needed [1]. Otherwise, recently it was proved that static and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields (EMFs) alter the secondary structure of proteins [2-5].

The exposure system consisted of an operational mobile phone Nokia 1208 which provided MWs at 1800 MHz at the power density at 940 mW/m2. A Narda SRM-3000 device was used for monitoring EMF during exposure, as accurately described in [6].

FTIR spectroscopy was carried out after exposure of 4 h of BSA and Mb samples in D2O solution at the concentration of 100 mg/ml.

The spectra exhibited an intense Amide I band centered at 1650 cm-1. In this region, a vibration at 1635 cm-1 attributed to β-sheet structures [7, 8], a band around 1680 cm-1 associated with β-turn [9] and a feature at 1620 cm-1 assigned to antiparallel β-sheet structure [10] were highlighted, as well. Significant increases in intensity (p < 0.05) of these bands were observed after exposure of BSA and Mb. This result can be attributed to unfolding process of  proteins and formation of aggregates [10, 11], which gives a proof that mobile phone MWs induce denaturation of proteins. Proteins’ aggregation can lead to neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders that can be considered as the first step to some pathologies.



[1] European Commission, Possible Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) on Human Health, Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks on Human Health (SCENIHR), 19 July 2006, 1-58.

[2] Magazù S, Calabrò E, Campo S, The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 114, 12144-12149, 2010.

[3] Magazù S, Calabrò E, The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 115, 6818–6826, 2011.

[4] Magazù S, Calabrò E, Campo S, Interdonato S, Journal of Biological Physics 38, 61-74, 2011.

[5] Calabrò E, Magazù S, Advances in Physical Chemistry 2012,  Article ID 970369, 6 pages, 2012.

[6] Calabrò E, Magazù S, J. Electromagn. Anal. & Appl. 2, 571-579, 2010.

[7] Ismail AA, Mantch HH, Wong PTT, Biochim.Biophys.Acta 1121,183–188, 1992.

[8] Lefevre T, Subirade M, Biopolymers 54, 578–586, 2000.

[9] Huang P, Dong A, Caughey WSJ, Pharmaceut. Sci. 84, 387–392, 1995.

[10] Clark AH, Tuffnell CD, Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 16, 339–351, 1980.

[11] Bauer R, Carrotta R, Rischel C, Ogendal L, Biophys. J. 79, 1030–1038, 2000.



Emanuele Calabrò, Salvatore Magazù

University of Messina, Messina, Italy

Section: Radiation Effects


In the last few years, an interest in the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) radiation on the physicochemical properties of polymers has increased due to various functions attributed to these materials, often used as devices for insulation from EMFs because their dielectric properties. Indeed several polymer materials are used in reactor materials and could be used in future fusion reactors, where magnetic confinement of plasma in high induction static magnetic fields (SMFs) have to be planned [1, 2]. The necessary security conditions for these future reactors give rise to concerns about the insulation capacity of polymers.

Hence, it is important to study polymers behavior under external EMFs.

Polyethylene oxide (PEO) can be considered a prototype of polymers because of the simplicity of its macromolecule’s basic forming unit CH2CH2O, so that we studied   the response to extremely low frequency (50 Hz) EMF radiation.

PEO was dissolved at 25mg/mL concentration in bidistilled H2O solution.

The exposure system consisted of a couple of Helmholtz coils used to generate time-varying EMFs at 50 Hz at the intensity of 1 mT by means of a AC voltage as described in [3,4].

FTIR spectroscopy was used to study PEO vibration bands changes induced by 4 h exposure to EMFs radiation.

The bands around 2850 cm-1 and 2925 cm-1, due to CH2 symmetric and  asymmetric stretching of methylene group, respectively [5,6], decreased in intensity significantly after exposure (p < 0.05).

Also the strong vibration band around 1465 cm-1, that can be assigned at CH2 scissoring vibration band [5, 6], decreased in intensity after exposure as well.

In this scenario, the decrease in intensity of stretching and scissoring vibrations of CH2 after exposure to EMFs radiation can be explained assuming that an unfolding of PEO chain occurred, due to the alignment of PEO chain along the direction of the external EMF. This result was already observed after exposure to a SMF [7].


[1] Mauer W, In insulators for fusion applications, IAEATECDOC-417, International Atomic Energy Agency, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1986.

[2] Alexandrov PA, Budaragin VV, Shachov MN, Nikanorova NI, and Trofimchuk  ES, Thermonuclear Synthesis 1, 24–30, 2006.

[3] Magazù S, Calabrò E, Campo S, Interdonato S, Journal of Biological Physics 38, 61-74, 2012.

[4] Magazù S, Calabrò E, Campo S, The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 114, 12144–12149, 2010.

[5] Parker FS, Applications of infrared spectroscopy in biochemistry, biology, and medicine. Plenum Press, NY. 1971.

[6] Stuart B, Biological applications of infrared spectroscopy. Chichester: J. Wiley and Sons, 1997.

[7] Calabrò E, Magazù S, Advances in Physical Chemistry, Volume 2013, Article ID 485865, 2013.





Nelya Metlyaeva, Andrey Bushmanov, Valery Krasnyuk, Elena Zapadinskaya, Olga Scherbatich, M Bolotnov

FSBI GSC FMBC of A.I.Burnazyan FMBA of Russia, Moscow, Russia

Section: Radiation in Medicine

Purpose: The object of this work is a comparative evaluation of the efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation of military personnel and personnel of ChNPP, participated in liquidation of consequences of the ChNPP accident in 1986–1987 years.

Material and methods: The study involved 3 groups of participants of liquidation of the consequences of ChNPP accident (PLCA) – 10 people. 1st group consisted of military personnel, colonels, 4 people, aged 65-77-73-77 years old, including 4 military chemical engineers (B.A.P., R.A.I., R.P.P., T.I.I.). 2nd Group is represented by two helicopter pilots (V.O.V., Sh.V.O.) and one test engineer of aircraft (I.V.A.) at the age of 50,57,75 years old. 3rd Group – is the ChNPP personnel, who worked from may 1986, in preparation for commissioning and operation of ChNPP units 1,2,3, in the face of a nuclear-physicist (O.I.N.), chief engineer of ChNPP (J.G.F.) and the shift supervisor of the electrical shop No. 1-2 unit of ChNPP (age 78,72,75 years old). The dose of external gamma-beta radiation in the 1st group registered in the range of 9,0 – 37,6 cSv, 2nd – up to 25 cSv, 3rd – 56,0 - 25 cSv.

Results: The rise of the profile parameters of MMPI above 80 T-points were detected in persons of the 1st group on the scale 1Hs–95,38 T-points of the neurotic triad and testified to the strain of mental adaptation, due to concerns about the health, hypochondriac tendencies. The rise of parameters on a scale of 2D–68,80 and 3Hy–72,4; T-points indicated the voltage of psychophysiological adaptation, due to anxiety-demonstrative behavior. The level of the profile of MMPI in persons of 2nd group indicated the over voltage of mental adaptation, marked by the rise of parameters of higher than 80 T-points as neurotic (1Hs–94,50; 2D–77,60; 3Hy–80,83 T-points), and psychotic triad (6Pa–75,80; 7Pt–68,30; 8Sch–81,26 T-points) with a relative decrease of parameters of the scale 9Ma–61,16 T-points, that indicated the hypochondriac, demonstrative and anxious-depressive tendencies. The profile of MMPI in persons of 3rd group does not extend beyond the limits of professional and populational norms (<70>30 T-points) and indicates on the efficient physiological adaptation in this group.

Conclusions: Comparative evaluation of psychophysiological adaptation of military personnel and personnel of ChNPP, indicates the over voltage of mental adaptation of military personnel (colonels, helicopter pilots) and effective adaptation of the staff (engineers), combined the basic work in station with participation in liquidation of consequences of the ChNPP accident. The over voltage of the psychophysiological adaptation colonels were detected at the level of the neurotic triad and was due hypochondriacal tendencies. The over voltage of the psychophysiological adaptation helicopter pilots was registered as at the level of neurotic, and as psychotic triad and was attributed due hypochondriacal and anxious-depressive tendencies.



Stefan Rafajlovic1, Predrag Bozovic2, Danijela Arandjic2, Sandra Ceklic3, Djordje Lazarevic3, Olivera Ciraj-Bjelac2

1University of Belgrade, School of Electrical Engineering , Belgrade, Serbia
2University of Belgrade, School of Electrical Engineering and Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia
3University of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Radiation in Medicine

Breast cancer is the major cause of mortality among female population in Serbia. It is presumed that the introduction of screening programme will reduce mortality. Quality control (QC) in mammography is an essential element of the successful breast cancer screening campaign as it provides a basis for standardization of the image quality and radiation dose in mammography. The purpose of this study is to investigate the radiation dose and technical image quality in mammography is Serbia after two years of implementation of the breast screening programme. Initially, QC protocols containing list of parameters, methodology, frequency of tests and reference values for screen-film, computed radiography and full-filed digital mammography) units, were developed and subsequently implemented.  During period 2013-2015, QC protocols were applied to total 186 mammography units, namely 18 full filed digital mammography (FFDM) units, 82 computed radiography (CR) units and 86 screen-film mammography (SFM) units.  This work presents results of tests of the selected parameters of  patient dose and image quality. Patient dose in terms of Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) was assessed for the standard breast represented by  45 mm PMMA phantom, while image quality in terms of  spatial resolution and threshold contrast visibility was assessed using TOR MAS  (Leeds test objects, Leeds, UK)  test object. In addition, for CR and  FFDM units, contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was assessed using  PMMA homogenous phantom and 0.2 mm aluminum detail. Assessed mean MGD was (1.8±0.94) mGy, (1.3±0.51) and (1.7±0.64) for CR, FFDM and SFM, respectively. Spatial resolution was better than 12 lp/mm only for 3/186 (1.6%)  units. In 34/186 (18%) units, spatial resolution was less than 5 lp/mm. Threshold contrast visibility was better than 1.2 in 41/186 (22%).  Mean CNR for CR and FFDM units was 5.2 ±2.2.  Relevant parameters of the x-ray tube and generator were within the reference values. Radiation dose in all units was in line with reference level of 2.5 mGy for a standard breast. However, insufficient image quality was noted in most of the units. Major problems are associated with lack of central data analysis, lack of clear differentiation between units used for clinical and screening mammography, deficiencies in the image receptor and mammography unit operation (automatic exposure control, compression),  lack of in-hospital QC and inadequate implementation and follow up of the corrective actions. Therefore, after initial implementation at the beginning of the population-based breast cancer screening campaign, it is essential to establish an effective system of regular and periodic QC tests and to ensure high quality mammograms with minimal possible radiation dose to population included in the screening.  



Mirya Kuranova

Cytology, Sain-Petersburg, Russia

Section: Radiation in Medicine

      Among the rare hereditary disease there are some causes difficult to diagnose. While such diseases involve damage (mutation) of one or several genes, in some cases a molecular diagnostics is impossible, i.e. a damaged gene is long and/or has many exons or many possible places of mutations.

When some disease is caused by mutation in gene(s), the protein synthesis from that gene is hindered or totally absent, therefore formation of active form of such protein is unlikely. This fact can be used in cell diagnostics of ataxia telangiectasia (more than 100 mutations in ATM gene), Seckel syndrome 1 type (deletions in ATR gene), AT-like disease (mutations in RAD gene), Nijmegen’s syndrome (mutations in NBS1 gene) and other diseases with defects in DNA repair. Such defects could be revealed by X-ray irradiation of patient’s cells, because they lead to increased DNA damage. Moreover usually those diseases correspond with increased chromosomes fragility and higher X-ray sensitivity.



Natasha Ivanova1, Severina Ivanova2

1Department of Physics and Biophysics, Faculty "Pharmacy", Medical University Varna, Varna, Bulgaria
2Clinic "Nuclear Medicine and metabolic therapy," University Hospital "St. Marina", Varna, Bulgaria

Section: Radiation in Medicine

Considering the biological action of ionizing radiation, their use for diagnosis and treatment in medicine is gaining more and more speed. With developments in contemporary science and technology hymns came increasingly on new technologies and methods using ionizing radiation for medical purposes. New generations of medical equipment using ionizing radiation, sparing the patient the radiation exposure replace outdated. With the introduction of modern equipment necessary well prepared and continuously improving medical and non-medical personnel servicing this equipment.

This trend is observed worldwide is especially relevant in Bulgaria. University Hospital "St. Marina" in Varna is one of the leaders in this direction. Since 2009, began upgrading and introduction of modern medical equipment using ionizing radiation. Almost entirely medical X-ray equipment was replaced, the gamma camera as well, and for the first time in Bulgaria positron emission tomography - PET / CT (2009) was installed, cyclotron complex for the production of radiopharmaceutical F-18s - for diagnostic with PET /CT was also the first in Bulgaria (2013), three linear accelerators (2014-2015).

In every medical procedure related to sources of ionizing radiation the patient is informed in advance about the benefits and harm of the conduct of the procedure. It takes their written consent to conduct a procedure using sources of ionizing radiation. In medical procedures using open sources, such as injection of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic PET / CT gamma camera or a patient subject to such a procedure, provides detailed information on its actions in contact with others after the completion of the study. In order to reduce the exposure of people they contacted in the next few days, the patient is recommended to limit the direct contacts, especially with small children and pregnant women. If the patient is a mother who breastfeeds her baby, it is recommended that breastfeeding should be stopped. All these rules are also known as the term “informed consent" with which the patient is required to meet prior to the study and approve it by putting his signature on it. Observing these rules, the patient protects people from their daily environment from unnecessary occupational exposure to ionizing radiation.

But what would happen if the patient does not comply with these rules?




Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital Centre, Zagreb, Croatia

Section: Radiation in Medicine

Aims and objectives: Ionizing radiation from medical imaging today accounts for a great proportion of the radiation exposure experienced by general population. While the benefits of imaging and interventional procedures are well known, those benefits are not without risks. Technological innovations are helping us reduce the dose of ionizing radiation delivered to patients thus lowering the chance of possible adverse effects. Older radiological equipment does not represent state of the art technology and also carries a higher risk of failures.  Our goal is to show the current state of Croatian radiological equipment and analyze its position especially in regards to the ESR position statement.

Materials and methods: We statistically processed data on the number and age of the devices installed in Croatia used in radiological diagnostic and therapeutic procedures (CT, angiography, mammography) and we compared them with those from other European countries.

Results:  No single modality analyzed fulfils the requirements for reasonable renewal.  The situation is especially alarming in mammography where 62% of equipment used is more than 10 years old. In angiography and CT scanners the percentage of equipment older than 10 years is 43.4% and 45.5% respectively. In comparison with countries with similar GDP Croatia has a much higher percentage of old equipment. To our knowledge there is not a comprehensive plan for renewal of equipment on a national level, inspite of constant efforts by Croatian Society of Radiology.

Conclusion:  In the light of the radiation safety and economical  principles  it is an imperative to force implementation of more coherent and sustainable investment strategies for renewal of radiological equipment in Croatia.



Andrej Petres1, Sanja Stojanovic1, Predrag Bozovoc2, Danijela Arandjic2, Viktor Til1, Olivera Ciraj-Bjelac2

1Clinical Centre of Vojvodina, Novi Sad, Serbia
2University of Belgrade, School of Electrical Engineering and Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Radiation in Medicine

The use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for peripheral vascular angiography and intervention  has experienced rapid growth in recent years, due to advances in C-arm imaging equipment and computing power.  Due to high susceptibility to the image noise, this imaging method is often associated with high patient and staff exposure. In addition to the whole body doses, extremity and eye lens doses could be particularly high  if radiation protection is not utilized.  The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of radiation exposure to patients and staff during DSA procedures.  Thirty eight studies performed by five different first operators were followed during period February-April 2015. All staff members used personal protective tools as lead aprons and collars, however, collective protective tools as ceiling suspended screens were not used due to practicality reasons. Protective lead glasses were used regularly by all operators. Data collected prospectively included fluoroscopy time, number of cine series, kerma–area product, cumulative dose at an interventional reference point and occupational dose  in terms of Hp(10) for the interventional radiologists measured using electronic dosimeters above  the operator’s lead apron. Mean fluoroscopy time was 5.0 ( 0.70-25) min and  number of cine series was 10±6 (2-41). Corresponding patient doses in terms of  kerma-area product and cumulative dose in interventional reference point were (55 ±36) Gycm2 and (203 ±170) mGy,  respectively. Occupational dose in term of Hp(10) was  28 µSv per procedure , with the corresponding range  from 2 to 351 µSv.  When  use of a dedicated eye lens dosemeter is impractical, this values could be used for  eye lens dose assessment,   by applying  a rough correction factor of 0.75.  Obtained dose  values are based on a local practice and may provide useful reference for planning of the individual monitoring arrangements, in particular when collective radiation protection tools as ceiling suspended screens are not used. 



Sanja Knezevic1, Bojana Matejic2, Zorica Terzic Supic2, Petar Bulat3

1Center of radiology and IMR, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
2Institute of Social Medicine, Belgrade University School of Medicine, Belgrade, Serbia
3Institute of Occupational Health, Belgrade University School of Medicine, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Radiation in Medicine

Introduction. Health care workers of the radiology department, are exposed to increased risk of adverse effects of ionizing radiation only in case of non-compliance with occupational safety procedures. At the same time, various studies suggest that medical professional are often poorly informed about the safety standards.

The aim of this paper is an assessment of the professional risk perception, in a population of health care workers from the radiology departments.

Method. This cross-sectional study included all employees (250) of the radiology department at the Center for radiology and MRI, Clinical Center of Setrbia. The study instrument was a questionnaire, consisting of 35 variables, designed and validated for this research. We have constructed two composite scores: the score of knowledge (11 variables) and the score of attitudes (10 variables)..The compliance with three occupational safety procedures, determinated responsible behaviour (derived dependent variable). Data collection and analysis were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 20. The univariate association between responsible behaviour and independent variables was assessed by unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). The independent associations between responsible behaviour and relevant independent variables among variables were tested by a multiple logistic regression model in a stepwise backward manner. The variables with a p < 0.05 were retained in the final model.

Result. We analysed 175 completed questionnairs (the response rate was 70% ). The scores of knowledge and attitudes showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.701 and Cronbach’s α = 0.773). The analysis revealed that half of our respondents had negative attitudes about their profession, and nearly two-thirds of them felt that they were under constant stress caused by incrised professional risk.. A total of 78.0% of respondents agreed that their workplace affects health, and 53.2% believed that it endangers their reproductive ability. In this research, 63.2% of respondents had no confidence in the values that dosimeters show. Only 12.1% of our respondents were satisfied with the achieved benefits. In relation to the score of knowledge, 5.1% were at a low level, 58.3% medium and 36.6% higher level of knowledge. There was no statistically significant correlation between knowledge of subjects and their behavior and perception of professional risks. The final model of multivariate logistic regression analysis, in which are entered all the features that have proven significant in individual univariate models (socio-demographic factors, attitudes and knowledge), illuminated three significant characteristics associated with responsible behavior. More responsible were married people (OR=2,32, p<0,001), older respondents (OR=3,23, p<0,001), and respondents with affirmative attitudes toward workplace (OR=1,13, p<0,001).

Conclusion. The majority of the respondents perceived exposure to high professional risk. The use of personal protective equipment, and the development and refinement of basic safety standards have an important role in protecting the radiology staff. Awareness of radiological protection and a positive attitude to the conditions and equipment in the workplace has a positive impact on their practice.



Viacheslav Sukhov1, Denis Firsanov1, Konstantin Zaplatnikov2

1Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, EMERCOM of Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, St.Petersburg, Russia
2MAZ Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Nurnberg, Germany

Section: Radiation in Medicine

PET/CT is unique in its ability to assess at molecular level the intensity of metabolism in body tissues. For cancer cells this intensity is much higher than normal, so even tiny accumulations of them are easily detected. Rendering quality and amount of information obtained by PET/CT, far higher than by any other diagnostic methods, so it is capable to diagnose those tumor foci that can’t be detected by other imaging modalities - US, X-ray, CT, MRI, monoPET. Properties of PET/CT allow detection of tumors at early stages of their growth; establishing how far tumor has spread; assessment whether cancer cells are viable or not. This information is critical when specifying the diagnosis of malignancy, operation, radiation or chemotherapy planning and monitoring of treatment effectiveness.

Radiation exposure during PET/CT is higher compared with conventional PET and CT studies. Given that the average dose of PET is about 2 mSv, the main contribution in the PET/CT falls on CT (average dose in the routine diagnostic CT - 5 mSv).

Dose of radiation during standard CT-procedure depends on many factors and can vary. Magnitude of radiation exposure during CT scans is affected by type of scanner (with one or two X-ray tubes), number of detectors, patient’s constitution, choice of peak kV/mAs and scan mode (trigger or synchronized with/without modulation) – e.g., addition of diagnostic CT-protocol with intravenous contrast and calcium scoring to PET/CT studies with standard low-dose CT (5 mSv) increases absorbed dose up to 30 mSv.

The effective radiation dose from PET/CT is 10-30 mSv (in large cities background radiation exposure reaches 3-5 mSv/year), but it is still several times lower compared with confirmed negative impact on humans. Despite this, you should use an individualized approach when selecting CT-protocol for each patient in accordance with the ALARA/ALARP principles.



Goran Sevo1, Marija Tasic1, Dalibor Paspalj1, Olga Vasovic1, Aleksandra Milicevic-Kalasic1, Dragana Damnjanovic2

1Institute for gerontology and palliative care, Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
2ZA Rosa, Belgrade, Serbia

Section: Radiation in Medicine

Last year we reported on our work of setting up a cohort of patients who received Tinea Capitis (TC, ringworm) treatment which included ionizing radiation during 1950s. We provide further progress on cohort recruitment, and point out to some sensitive issues concerning protection of individual identity.

Large scale outbreak of TC occurred in Former Yugoslavia during 1950s. TC is fungal disease of the scalp commonly affecting children of school ages in an environment of low sanitation and hygiene. Epidemic proportions were unprecedented, forcing the former Yugoslavia health authorities to initiate a nationwide eradication campaign. Application for assistance was also made to UNICEF which provided significant financial and logistic support. The campaign took place from 1950-1960 and encompassed field screening of almost 2 million individuals, while treatment which included X-irradiation was provided to roughly 100,000 children, at least 50,000 in Serbia alone.

Until discovery of Griseofulvin in 1958, the only TC treatment available was based on X-ray induced hair removal followed by application of topical ointments. Irradiation doses applied through standardized protocol were considered safe and represented international standard of care. Many years later it was shown that even such exposure can lead to serious delayed health consequences decades after the treatment (mean latency is now estimated to be 35 years). Health risks relate to increased incidence of benign and malignant neoplasms of the head and neck.

Discovery of protocols from the Belgrade TC hospital enabled individual identification of former patients nowadays in their 60s and 70s. So far, identity has been confirmed for 14,000 persons out of 25,000 treated.

Our last year’s progress has been significantly delayed by the Serbian judicial reforms concerning protection of individual privacy data. Identity check of hospital data is now made almost impossible at the local registry offices and through Ministry of Interior database. The same applies to uncertainty of means by which a control group of individuals from the general population is to be selected. The only unquestioned activity remains individual approach to already identified former TC patients through health care system, aimed to obtain permission to participate following individual informed consent. Not even this aspect was carried out entirely without problems due to varying levels of motivation by primary health care institutions. We believe that all this obstacles could be overcome only with more explicit support by the relevant authorities.

We also believe that as many a18,000 former TC patients, a minimum of 1,000 general controls, and several thousand unexposed siblings could be included. Once this work is finalized, the Serbian TC cohort would represent a valuable source of information to the wider scientific community.



Marina V. Troshina1, Anatoliy A. Lychagin1, Stepan E. Ulianenko1, Vladimir I. Potetnya1, Alexey N. Solovev1, Sergei N. Koryakin1, Vladimir A. Pikalov2, Alexander G. Alexeev2

1A. Tsyb Medical Radiological Research Centre – branch of the National Medical Research Radiological Centre of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Obninsk, Russia
2State Research Center of the Russian Federation “Institute for High Energy Physics” of National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Protvino, Russia

Section: Radiation in Medicine

Radiochromic films are widely used in dosimetry studies with different radiation types, including proton and carbon ion beams. The key issue of carbon ion beams is the variation of its linear energy transfer (LET) with the penetration depth in material. Since the response of а film depends on radiation LET, relative efficiency was evaluated to correct measured dose values.

Dosimetric film Gafchromic® EBT3 (International Specialty Products Inc, Wayne, NJ) was used as a monitor while biological systems has been irradiated with U-70 particle accelerator at IHEP (Institute for High Energy Physics), Protvino, Russia.

Carbon ions energy was 455 MeV per nucleon. Dosimetric measurements and exposure of biological objects were performed in air box within water phantom. Air box location was controlled with high-precision movement system with remote control. The absorbed dose was measured with ionization chamber TM30010. The readout of ionization chamber was normalized to carbon ions fluency. Relative effectiveness of films at а pristine Bragg peak has been determined by irradiation of the film positioned along a beam axis. So as there is no primary standard for heavy ions, the gamma radiation with 60Co was used as calibration values. Films were scanned 48 hour after irradiation with an Epson V700 Photo scanner with 300 dpi resolution.

The dose measured with ionization chamber and radiochromic film used have substantial difference at the Bragg peak. The experimental results indicated that doses determined with films were underestimated by 10% and 40% at plateau and Bragg peak regions, respectively. Work is still in progress to further explore its potential and limitations.

Radiochromic films are precise tools with high spatial resolution. Assuming all the necessary corrections and validations done the films are promising and powerful tool for both proton and heavy ion therapy.



Sehad Kadiri1, Gezim Hodolli1, Gamend Nafezi2, Naim Syla2, Meleq Bahtijari2, Burim Uka3, Kostandin Dollani4

1Institute of Occupational Medicine, Obiliq, Kosovo
2University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo
3UCCK, Prishtina, Kosovo
4Institute of Radiation Protection, Tirana, Albania

Section: Radiation in Medicine

X-rays play an important role in modern technology, especially for medical imaging purposes. Medical sources of ionizing radiation are the largest contributor to the population dose from artificial sources, and most of this radiation comes from diagnostic X-rays. The X-ray spectrum and beam quality are must-know parameters for studying the dosimetric properties of X-ray beams in diagnostic radiology.

Quality Control measurement tests on diagnostic X-ray units were carried out in sixteen medical treatment centers (MTC) during period of time 2013-2015. The measurements consisted of tube voltage (kV), half-value layer (HVL), exposure time (ms), radiation output and Entrance Surface Dose (ESD).

X-ray tube output measurements were conducted using PTW Nomex Multimeter, calibrated at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). The dosimeter was positioned in central beam axis such that the X-ray tube focal spot–detector-distance (FDD) was 100 cm. The radiation field size (FS) at FDD was set just to cover the dosimeter in order to avoid the possible influence of scatter radiation to the dosimeter. The tube potential was set at more than 70 kVp and any mAs value (depending on convenient tube load conditions), an X-ray exposure made and the dosimeter reading recorded. This step was repeated for 5 times more at same kVp and mAs settings and the average dosimeter reading determined. The X-ray tube output was determined as the ratio of average dosimeter reading (air kerma) to the tube current-time product used.

The analysis of X ray units test results showed that more than 82% had acceptable deviation between nominal and measured values of X ray tube voltage within the tolerance limit of 10%, whereas 84% of the X ray units meet the recommended limits of exposure time (deviation < 10%). Measurements on the X ray tubes showed that 93.75% had adequate beam filtration (HVL > 2.3 mm.Al, 80 kVp) and in 98% exposure reproducibility had acceptable variation within the tolerance limit of 5%.



Esmeralda Dautović, Una Suljić

Farmaceutski fakultet, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Section: Radiation in Medicine

Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is successful combination of radiation therapy and immunotherapy. Radioimmunotherapy uses an monoclonal antibody linked with a radionuclide in order to deliver cytotoxic radiation to targer cancer cell. Monoclonal antibody  recognize and bind to the surface of cancer cells and allows a high dose of radiation to be delivered directly into the tumor. This ability of antibodies to specifically bind to a tumor-associated antigen increases the dose of radiation delivered to the tumor cells while decreasing the dose to normal tissues. RIT requires a tumor cell to express an antigen that is not accessible in normal cells. In the ideal case only tumor cells are destroyed, and usual generalized side effects of tumor therapy (nausea, vomiting, alopecia) are absent.

Murine anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) conjugated to either 131I ( 131I-tositumomab) or 90Y (90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan) were the first agents of radioimmunotherapy, and they were approved for the treatment of refractory non-Hodgkin’s  lymphoma. They are used in patients whose lymphoma is refractory to conventional chemotherapy and the monoclonal antibody rituximab. Radioimmunotherapy is very suitable for the treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) because lymphomas are tumors that are very sensitive to radiation, and with this therapy the largest amount of radiation ends in tumor tissue, as opposed to total body radiation.  The agent used today is Yttrium-90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan (Zevalin®). Iodine-131 Tositumomab (Bexxar®) is no longer on the market.

The immunogenicity of murine monoclonal antibodies led to the characterization and production of potentially less immunogenic antibody forms, including chimeric and humanized immunoglobulins. As with chemotherapy, therapeutic progress with radioimmunoconjugates has been most evident in the non-solid tumours. Several radioimmunoconjugates, some recently approved by the FDA for radioimmunodetection are consist of antibody Fab’ fragments conjugated to technetium-99m, and these smaller forms may be less immunogenic. Several new radioimmunotherapy agents are under development or in clinical trials. Potential uses for RIT include the treatment of prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma, ovarian cancer andleukemia.

The cost of radioimmunoconjugate should be comparable to chemotherapy, and its selectivity should permit cost savings by minimizing side-effects such as seen after chemotherapy. Early and aggressive use of radioimmunotherapy should result in successful disease control, with minimal side-effects. 



Amra Meštrić1, Zijah Rifatbegović1, Senija Kunosić2, Selma Kunosić3, 4

1University Clinical Center Tuzla, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
2University in Tuzla, Medical School, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
3Tecnical University Liberec, Faculty of mechanical Engineering, Liberec, Czech Republic
4, , --- Please select country ---

Section: Radiation in Medicine

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a medical procedure in which the part of the conduction system of the heart, tumor or other dysfunctional tissue is ablated using the heat. Ablation refers to treatment that destroy tumors without removing them. High frequency alternating current that flows through the electrodes in the range of 350-500 kiloHertz is used. The treatment is palliative and it is based on a fact that normal tissue can be exposed to higher temperature than tumor tissue. RFA may be used to treat parenhymal organ tumors, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, and bone tumors. The success rate for completly eliminating small liver tumors is greater than 85%. Two important advantages of the radio frequency current over the previously used low frequency alternating current or pulses of direct current are that it does not directly stimulate nerves or muscle and therefore can often be used without the need for general anesthesia and that it is very specific for treating the desired tiss